Cases reported "Kyphosis"

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1/116. Analysis of the cervical spine alignment following laminoplasty and laminectomy.

    Very little detailed biomechanical examination of the alignment of the cervical spine following laminoplasty has been reported. We performed a comparative study regarding the buckling-type alignment that follows laminoplasty and laminectomy to know the mechanical changes in the alignment of the cervical spine. Lateral images of plain roentgenograms of the cervical spine were put into a computer and examined using a program we developed for analysis of the buckling-type alignment. Sixty-four patients who underwent laminoplasty and 37 patients who underwent laminectomy were reviewed retrospectively. The subjects comprised patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and those with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). The postoperative observation period was 6 years and 7 months on average after laminectomy, and 5 years and 6 months on average following laminoplasty. Development of the buckling-type alignment was found in 33% of patients following laminectomy and only 6% after laminoplasty. Development of buckling-type alignment following laminoplasty appeared markedly less than following laminectomy in both CSM and OPLL patients. These results favor laminoplasty over laminectomy from the aspect of mechanics.
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2/116. Severe progressive osteoporotic spine deformity with cardiopulmonary impairment in a young patient. A case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: This report describes a young patient with a rapidly progressive kyphosis caused by collapse of a severely osteoporotic thoracolumbar spine, which led to impairment of cardiopulmonary function. OBJECTIVES: To highlight the treatment strategy, difficulty of diagnosis, operative stabilization, and outcome. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATE: Little is known about natural history, treatment options, and results of this condition. methods: The magnitude of bone loss was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and the deformity was visualized by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Laboratory investigations also were performed before and during halotraction in an attempt to establish a diagnosis. These data constituted the preoperation information required to assess later results of medical and surgical intervention. RESULTS: An extensive evaluation of possible underlying etiologies failed to identify a specific etiology. Before and during halotraction, bone mineral substitutes were given, partially correcting the bone mineral content as measured on repeated dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans. In addition, the thoracic kyphosis was partially corrected, from 100 degrees to 70 degrees Cobb's angle. Subsequently, a combined anterior and posterior stabilization was performed from C7 to S1 using a vascularized fibula graft, a double Isola rod system (AcroMed, Cleveland, OH), and a carbonate apatite cancellous bone cement to reinforce the pedicle screws. At follow-up assessment 40 months surgery, the patient was asymptomatic and fully mobilized, with radiographs showing complete incorporation of the grafts and no loosening of the fixation device. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties of progressive spine deformity caused by severe osteoporosis in young patients emphasizes the importance of a thoroughly planned treatment strategy. Halotraction is recommended to stop progression of the deformity, or even partially correct it, and to allow time to search for the diagnosis and bone mineral substitution. Surgical treatment using vascularized fibular strut grafts and a strong fixation device was successful. Biocompatible carbonated apatite cancellous bone cement was successfully used to reinforce pedicle screw fixation.
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3/116. Neurological complications of anterior spinal surgery for kyphosis with normal somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs).

    We report a case of neurological complications of anterior release for correction of kyphosis. After the operation, the patient had pyramidal weakness and decreased pain sensation below T5, whereas light touch, proprioception and vibration sensation were intact. Clinical and neurophysiological findings in this patient suggested a partial lesion of the spinal cord probably due to ischaemia in the territory of the anterior spinal artery. Intraoperative and postoperative tibial nerve SEPs remained normal, which stresses the need for recording from the motor pathways.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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4/116. Anaesthetic management of two paediatric patients with Hecht-Beals syndrome.

    We undertook the anaesthetic management of two children with Hecht-Beals syndrome for orthopaedic surgery under general anaesthesia. Both patients had arachnodactyly, kyphoscoliosis, and multiple congenital joint contractures, but limited mandible excursion was not obvious preoperatively in either, although mental retardation made it difficult for them to cooperate with mouth examination. They had no apparent difficulties with their mouths in daily activities. The anaesthesia records of one patient showed that intubation had been difficult in an earlier procedure. The other patient also had a history of difficult intubation, with slight tearing of the corners of her mouth during an intubation procedure. During slow induction of general anaesthesia with sevoflurane, face mask ventilation was easily performed. We attempted to visualize the larynx under anaesthesia with muscle relaxation, but we were unsuccessful because of the limited mouth opening. After several trials, blind oral intubations were fortunately successful in both patients. There were no postoperative problems with the airway.
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5/116. Circumferential cervical surgery for spondylostenosis with kyphosis in two patients with athetoid cerebral palsy.

    BACKGROUND: patients with athetoid cerebral palsy may develop severe degenerative changes in the cervical spine decades earlier than their normal counterparts due to abnormal cervical motion. methods: Two patients, 48 and 52 years of age, presented with moderate to severe myelopathy (Nurick Grades IV and V). MR and 3-dimensional CT studies demonstrated severe spondylostenosis with kyphosis in both patients. This necessitated multilevel anterior corpectomy with fusion (C2-C7, C3-C7) using fibula and iliac crest autograft and Orion plating, followed by posterior wiring, fusion using Songer cables, and halo placement. RESULTS: Postoperatively, both patients improved, demonstrating only mild or mild to moderate (Nurick Grades II and III) residual myelopathy. Although both fused posteriorly within 3.5 months, the patient with the fibula graft developed a fracture of the anterior C7 body with mild anterior graft migration, and inferior plate extrusion into the C7-T1 interspace. However, because he has remained asymptomatic for 9 months postoperatively, without dysphagia, removal of the plate has not yet been necessary. CONCLUSIONS: patients with athetoid cerebral palsy should undergo early prospective cervical evaluations looking for impending cord compromise. When surgery is indicated, circumferential surgery offers the maximal degree of cord decompression and stabilization with the highest rate of fusion.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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6/116. The halo-Milwaukee brace. Case series of a revived technique.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case series in which the halo-Milwaukee brace was used for postoperative immobilization in children with complex congenital and developmental spinal deformities. OBJECTIVES: To describe the use of halo-Milwaukee orthosis in a pediatric population for stabilization of the cervical and upper thoracic spine. SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: Postoperative immobilization of the neck and upper thorax can be achieved with cervical orthoses, cervicothoracic lumbar orthosis, halo cast, Minerva jacket, or halo vest. In the young child or in individuals with severe deformities, prefabricated braces often do not provide adequate stability or predictable fit. The halo-Milwaukee brace has proven to be an effective and versatile technique in the management of complex pediatric spinal deformities. methods: Halo-Milwaukee brace immobilization was used in 12 patients after surgical stabilization of the upper thoracic or cervical spine. Technique and indications are discussed in this report. Surgical outcomes and complications were reviewed retrospectively in all cases. RESULTS: Application of the halo-Milwaukee brace was a clinically effective and safe means of controlling the upper thoracic and cervical spine. The orthosis was well tolerated and allowed access to the posterior incision. The brace is easily converted to a standard Milwaukee brace with neck ring. The pelvic segment of the brace is molded before surgery, and in most instances did not require postoperative modification. CONCLUSION: The halo-Milwaukee brace is a simple and convenient method of intraoperative and postoperative immobilization. The technique is applicable in patients who cannot be treated with more conventional off-the-shelf orthoses. The brace was well tolerated and allowed for early patient mobilization.
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ranking = 5
keywords = operative
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7/116. Hepatic ischemia as a complication after correction of post-traumatic gibbus at the thoracolumbar junction.

    STUDY DESIGN: This is a case report of hepatic ischemia secondary to celiac trunk stenosis as a complication after correction of a preoperative 30 degrees gibbus at the thoracolumbar junction. OBJECTIVES: A high index of suspicion is needed to make a timely diagnosis of hepatic ischemia in any setting. After spinal reconstruction involving lengthening, symptoms suggestive of an acute abdomen accompanied by markedly elevated liver enzymes should be evaluated with an angiogram to check for celiac trunk stenosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: review of the literature showed no reported cases of hepatic ischemia or descriptions of the status of celiac trunk stenosis after spinal surgery. Even in more commonly associated settings, diagnosis of both phenomena is often delayed, with possible morbid consequences. methods: A case is presented of a patient who underwent gibbus correction and re-establishment of lost anterior intervertebral distance at the thoracolumbar junction. After surgery, ischemic hepatitis, a perforated gallbladder, and splenic infarction developed secondary to celiac trunk stenosis-a result of cephalad displacement of the celiac trunk and compression of the artery by the diaphragmatic ligament. RESULTS: An emergent exploratory laparotomy with cholecystectomy was performed followed by an angiogram, which demonstrated stenosis of the celiac trunk. After release of the arcuate ligament, the patient's condition improved rapidly, and he made a complete recovery. CONCLUSIONS: The consequences of a delay in diagnosis of hepatic ischemia can be disastrous. An awareness of the possibility of this complication after spinal lengthening should facilitate a timely angiogram and operative intervention.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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8/116. Progressive rotational dislocation in kyphoscoliotic deformities: presentation and treatment.

    STUDY DESIGN: Progressive rotational dislocation of the spine has been described as the most serious evolutive risk of kyphoscoliosis. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 11 patients with this deformity. OBJECTIVES: To delineate the clinical and radiologic characteristics of this entity to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. The outcome after treatment was analyzed to point out the rationale for appropriate treatment. methods: The characteristic radiologic feature was a short sharp angled kyphosis (average 112) at the junction of two lordoscoliotic curvatures. The etiology of the spinal deformity was neurofibromatosis in four patients and various dysplastic conditions in seven patients. Two patients had congenital vertebral defects. Structural weakness of the bone was therefore a basic feature. Neurologic impairment was identified in three patients (one complete, two incomplete). Four patients had a nonunion after a previous attempt at spinal fusion: two after a combined anterior and posterior fusion with an anterior approach from the convexity and two after a posterior fusion alone. All patients underwent complete circumferential stabilization through anterior strut-grafting and posterior fusion. An anterior approach from the concavity was performed systematically with tibial strut grafts inserted in a palisade fashion. Preoperative correction of the deformity was performed by progressive controlled elongation in a Stagnara elongation cast. Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation was used in two patients, Harrington instrumentation was used in two patients, and cast immobilization alone was used in seven patients. RESULTS: The average follow-up period was 5 years 5 months. All but one patient achieved successful spinal fusion. Loss of correction at the latest follow-up evaluation was less than 3 degrees in nine patients. The two patients with incomplete neurologic deficits were improved, but the patient with the complete deficit remained unchanged after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: awareness of the possibility of a progressive rotational dislocation in dystrophic forms of kyphoscoliosis should allow for an early diagnosis and stabilization. The percentage of patients having a neurologic deficit in this series was significantly less important than in the initial report. Early anterior strut grafting from the concavity of the scoliotic curvature and posterior fusion is recommended.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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9/116. Total en-bloc spondylectomy for correcting congenital kyphosis.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report of congenital kyphosis corrected using a total en-bloc spondylectomy. OBJECTIVES: To report a new surgical technique for the treatment of congenital kyphosis with myelopathy. SETTING: Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Akita University School of medicine, Akita, japan. methods: A 16-year-old boy who showed a 61 degrees angular kyphosis and a 32 degrees scoliosis from T6 to T9 due to the failure of the vertebral bodies formation in T7 and T8 was treated with a total en-bloc spondylectomy. RESULTS: The kyphosis was corrected to 26 degrees (57.3%) and the scoliosis was corrected to 5 degrees (84.4%) postoperatively. Three years postoperatively, no loss of correction has occurred and the patient has no complaints. CONCLUSIONS: Total en-bloc spondylectomy is one of the useful surgical procedures for correction of congenital kyphosis Type I, with a high correction rate. spinal cord (2000) 38, 382 - 385.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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10/116. Thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis in Larsen's syndrome. A case report.

    Severe thoracolumbar kyphosis in Larsen's syndrome is rare. A successful 10-year treatment course, including T2-L4 subfascial rod placement when the patient was 6 years 3 months of age, nine periodic lengthenings, and definitive surgery at age 14 years 4 months is presented. From preoperative to 2-year postoperative definitive surgery, the patient's T1 to S1 spine length increased from 19 to 36 cm. The patient's 83 degrees thoracolumbar kyphosis was transformed to 45 degrees kyphosis and 28 degrees lumbar lordosis, and scolioses of 95 degrees and 65 degrees were reduced to 64 degrees and 50 degrees.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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