Cases reported "Lactation Disorders"

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1/52. Isolated galactorrhea with normal serum prolactin levels: clinical implications.

    Detailed endocrine-metabolic studies were performed on five women who were otherwise well but who had had inappropriate breast secretions for variable periods of time (three months to 16 years). Our results suggest that the presence of a lactose-containing breast secretion, which strictly defines galactorrhea, does not necessarily indicate a recognizable abnormality if normal hypothalamic-pituitary function is present. In these regularly menstruating women with isolated galactorrhea, we suggest a minimum initial evaluation, but careful long-term follow-up studies to identify those cases which may progress to the other recognized, more serious amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndromes.
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2/52. Pituitary function testing in amenorrhea-galactorrhea-hyperprolactinemia.

    Fifteen patients, age 16 to 55, presented with amenorrhea-galactorrhea-hyperprolactinemia. Pituitary function was evaluated by bolus injections of insulin, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in 13 and by LHRH and TRH in 2. Responses to growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol (F), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and prolactin were measured. GH, TSH, and F responses were normal in most cases. LH responses were decreased (P less than 0.025) in patients with abnormal sellar tomography, whereas FSH responses tended to decrease with elevated prolactin levels. Prolactin responses were absent in five of the seven cases which could be evaluated. The clinical value of such testing appears to be limited to an individualized basis, although some prognosis of ovulatory response to bromocriptine therapy may be obtained from the gonadotropin response.
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keywords = galactorrhea
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3/52. Primary empty sella, galactorrhea, hyperprolactinemia and renal tubular acidosis.

    Discussed here is a 41 year old woman with galactorrhea associated with the empty sella syndrome and mild renal tubular acidosis. Basal serum prolactin (PRL) levels were normal, but a 24 hour serum PRL secretory profile demonstrated an increased mean PRL concentration. serum PRL was appropriately suppressed by the administration of L-dopa; however, chlorpromazine stimulation resulted in a blunted serum PRL response. Pituitary luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, ACTH and thyroid stimulating hormone levels were normal. Thus, galactorrhea associated with an enlarged sella does not establish the diagnosis of a pituitary tumor, and pneumoencephalography must be performed to exclude the empty sella syndrome.
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keywords = galactorrhea
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4/52. Effects of CB-154 (2-Br-alpha-ergocryptine) on prolactin and growth hormone release in an acromegalic patient with galactorrhea.

    An acromegalic patient with galactorrhea was treated with an ergot alkaloid, 2-Br-alpha-ergocryptine (CB-154). serum prolactin decreased rapidly to normal level by CB-154 and the complete cessation of galactorrhea was noted. The inhibitory effect of CB-154 On growth hormone (GH) release was also noted, but slight. The mechanism of inhibitory action of CB-154 on both prolactin and GH secretion was discussed in connection with the experimental model of pituitary tumors, in which both hormones were produced by a single type of tumor cells. The discontinuation of CB-154 treatment was associated with the return of both prolactin and GH levels to the initial high values with resumption of galactorrhea.
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5/52. diabetes insipidus and galactorrhea caused by histiocytosis X.

    A 44-year-old woman with diabetes insipidus of 3 years duration was found to have histiocytosis X. This was based on clinical, radiological and pathological findings consistent with the diagnosis. Furthermore, she developed spontaneous galactorrhea during the course. Endocrine studies of hypothalamic-pituitary function revealed completely impaired secretion of gonadotropin, growth hormone and anti-diuretic hormone, and possible partial impairment of adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion, while thyroid stimulating hormone secretion remained intact. Persistently elevated plasma levels of human prolactin were also demonstrated, which were unaffected by administration of either thyrotropin releasing hormone, l-DOPA or water loading, but suppressed significantly by CB-154, an ergot alkaloid. These results suggest that abnormalities of the patient's endocrine function may be mainly accounted for by a single hypothalamic lesion.
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keywords = galactorrhea
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6/52. hyperprolactinemia, galactorrhea and amenorrhea in women with a spinal cord injury.

    Six women with a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) developed hyperprolactinemia, amenorrhea and galactorrhea. Five of them had thoracic level lesions and 1 had a lumbosacral lesion. Two were postpartum and 1 was pregnant at the time of injury. Transient diabetes insipidus developed in 1 patient. Temporary administration of bromocriptine decreased prolactin levels, caused cessation of lactation and restored ovulatory cycles. The syndrome disappeared spontaneously in all 6 patients. Pituitary stalk concussion resulting from the trauma might cause this phenomenon, with the level of the cord injury playing a role. Being pregnant or early postpartum can predispose women to develop this syndrome.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = galactorrhea
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7/52. acromegaly as the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome.

    The presence of amenorrhea with galactorrhea, elevated prolactin levels, and a pituitary tumor does not always imply the diagnosis of a prolactinoma. Other pituitary disorders, including acromegaly, should be considered.
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keywords = galactorrhea
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8/52. Neurogenic galactorrhea-amenorrhea.

    Neuroendocrine function in two women with galactorrhea-amenorrhea arising from abnormalities in the PRL reflex arc was compared to that of normal women. Basal gonadotropins were lower than normal, and one patient lacked episodic secretion of LH; however, the serum gonadotropin rise after iv LRH was in the normal range in both patients. Mean basal PRL levels were slightly elevated in one patient and were normal in the other, and the PRL levels after TRH, chlorpromazine, and levodopa testing were similar to those seen in normal women. breast stimulation did not increase PRL levels in either patient. PRL levels fell with bromergocryptine therapy, galactorrhea ceased, and normal menses resumed. These studies indicate that chronic afferent impulses originating in the PRL reflex arc can result in galactorrhea and amenorrhea and that bromergocryptine therapy in such patients can restore normal menses.
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keywords = galactorrhea
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9/52. Subcutaneous mastectomy as ultimate treatment of galactorrhea.

    galactorrhea, caused by hyperprolactinemia can successfully be treated by bromocriptine. Continuous long-term use of this drug is not always desirable or possible because of side-effects. In cases of hyperprolactinemia with severe galactorrhea, where surgical or radiological therapy is not possible and long-term treatment with bromocriptine is not acceptable, subcutaneous mastectomy might be considered as an ultimate solution.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = galactorrhea
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10/52. cimetidine-induced galactorrhea.

    Various breast abnormalities have been described in patients treated chronically with cimetidine, but galactorrhea has been reported only twice in the medical literature. In both cases, there appeared to be an associated hyperprolactinemia. These problems could well represent a consequence of histamine2-receptor blockade. We report here a female patient with hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension who developed hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea while on long-term cimetidine therapy. Both the hyperprolactinemia and the galactorrhea disappeared when the patient was switched to ranitidine, an alternative H2-receptor blocker. A review of the previous case reports and relevant literature is included.
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