Cases reported "Lactation Disorders"

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1/101. Breastfeeding anaphylaxis case study.

    This case describes a woman who experienced an anaphylatic reaction associated with breastfeeding. The reaction occurred with each feeding on day three postpartum and resolved on day four. Possible reasons for this severe reaction are suggested. ( info)

2/101. Isolated galactorrhea with normal serum prolactin levels: clinical implications.

    Detailed endocrine-metabolic studies were performed on five women who were otherwise well but who had had inappropriate breast secretions for variable periods of time (three months to 16 years). Our results suggest that the presence of a lactose-containing breast secretion, which strictly defines galactorrhea, does not necessarily indicate a recognizable abnormality if normal hypothalamic-pituitary function is present. In these regularly menstruating women with isolated galactorrhea, we suggest a minimum initial evaluation, but careful long-term follow-up studies to identify those cases which may progress to the other recognized, more serious amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndromes. ( info)

3/101. pregnancy following bromocryptine therapy for the amenorrhoea-galactorrhoea syndrome due to a pituitary tumour.

    A woman developed amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea after partial removal of a pituitary tumor during pregnancy. Hyperprolactinaemia was supressed by therapy with bromocryptine (CB 154, Sandoz) resulting in cessation of galactorrhoea in two months, spontaneous menstruation after eight months, and pregnancy after twelve months. ( info)

4/101. Patient with insufficient glandular tissue experiences milk supply increase attributed to progesterone treatment for luteal phase defect.

    A case report is presented on the experience of a mother diagnosed with insufficient glandular tissue at 3 months postpartum with her first child who then went on to breastfeed her second child (fifth pregnancy) without supplementation of any kind. The mother had difficulty becoming pregnant and maintaining a pregnancy. She was diagnosed with a luteal phase defect and was thus treated with natural progesterone during her fifth pregnancy. The authors speculate that this treatment may have stimulated the development of her mammary alveolar cells, allowing lactation to progress normally. ( info)

5/101. Puerperal alactogenesis with normal prolactin dynamics: is prolactin resistance the cause?

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cause of puerperal alactogenesis in a young woman. DESIGN: After proper clinical assessment, a definitive investigative protocol was followed to determine the cause of alactogenesis. SETTING: Tertiary care medical center in Kashmir, india. PATIENT(S): A young married woman with three full-term deliveries, all characterized by puerperal alactogenesis. INTERVENTION(S): An investigative protocol to document prolactin reserve and mammography to demonstrate presence of normal breast tissue. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Prolactin secretory reserve. RESULT(S): The patient had normal breast development and an adequate pituitary prolactin reserve. CONCLUSION(S): Prolactin resistance may have caused alactogenesis. ( info)

6/101. New bilateral microcalcifications at mammography in a postlactational woman: case report.

    A 33-year-old woman with a strong family history of breast cancer who was referred for mammography 5 weeks after completing lactation was found to have new diffuse bilateral microcalcifications in the breast ducts. Contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast showed bilateral patchy areas of abnormal enhancement. Large-core needle biopsy showed diffuse calcifications within expanded benign ducts in a background of lactational change, without evidence of malignancy. To the authors' knowledge, these calcifications have not been previously reported and are possibly related to milk stasis or apoptosis associated with lactation. ( info)

7/101. polycystic ovary syndrome: a connection to insufficient milk supply?

    Despite advances in lactation skills and knowledge, insufficient milk production still continues to mystify mothers and lactation consultants alike. Based on 3 cases with similar threads, a connection is proposed between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and insufficient milk supply. Described are the etiology and possible symptoms of PCOS such as amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, infertility, persistent acne, ovarian cysts, elevated triglycerides, and adult-onset diabetes, along with possible pathological interference with mammogenesis, lactogenesis, and galactopoiesis. Clinical suggestions include guidelines for screening mothers and careful monitoring of babies at risk. Further research is necessary to confirm the proposed association and to develop therapies with the potential to improve lactation success. ( info)

8/101. Assessing infant suck dysfunction: case management.

    Based on this more thorough assessment, the lactation consultant may be able to identify all of the factors contributing to this complex case. In some situations, her skilled interventions will suffice once the underlying problem is addressed. Occasionally, she will identify a factor that falls outside of her area of expertise; when this happens, she must make the appropriate referrals. For example, a referral to a physician for a frenotomy or suspected neurological or other medical problem is appropriate. It is clear that because Baby E's problems were not resolved after 6 weeks of concerned effort, something was missed. It would certainly be appropriate for the lactation consultant to refer the dyad to another lactation consultant who has more expertise in handling clinically challenging breastfeeding problems. If possible, the referring lactation consultant should accompany the dyad so that she can improve her clinical skills. Assuming Baby E does not have underlying medical problems, the most likely causes of Baby E's difficulties are anatomical variation and/or sucking dysfunction. Because the baby is so fussy, it also would be wise to consider the possibility of allergies or food tolerance. Our first rule is " Feed the baby." The second rule is " Correct or work on correcting the problem or problems." Our goal is to achieve exclusive breastfeeding or as close an approximation as possible. We almost never give up on this goal, but we do educate the mother and work professionally with her choices. Until the baby is breastfeeding well, the lactation consultant will probably need to instruct the mother to continue using a pump ( preferably a hospital-grade, electric, bilateral pump). The mother should use the pump physiologically, pumping as many times a day as the baby would breastfeed. As soon as the situation improves, the mother should be instructed to wean gradually from the pump and any other breastfeeding equipment she is using. The goal should always be to help the mother and baby acheive a breastfeeding relationship, preferably without the use of any devices. We usually suggest that the mother avoid all rubber nipples and pacifiers during this learning period. Babies have a strong need to suck. Correct sucking helps the baby organize and be soothed. Whenever possible, we prefer infants to use their mother's breasts for pacification, warmth, love, smell, and food rather than artificial nipples and devices. mothers almost always want to know how much work and time is involved before committing to following suggested treatment plans. As a general rule, we have found that it will take approximately the same number of weeks as the baby's age to solve the problems completely. In this case, it will probably take about 6 weeks until mother and baby graduate from "breastfeeding school." The first 2 weeks would most likely be very intense for the whole family, with the mother getting very little sleep. VJ is likely to cry when talking to the lactation consultant during this period of intense change. It is helpful during these times to listen to the mother, reinforce that you know how hard she is working and that what she is feeling is normal. Giving the mother a hug and complimenting her mothering efforts go a long way toward encouraging her to continue. It is not a time to give up. The second 2 weeks typically are easier, as everybody is used to the workload and required skills. The focus becomes refining skills. The last 2 weeks is usually a time to reduce and then wean off the equipment and exercises. This timing is just a guideline and must always be individualized. Although it is a tremendous amount of work for the mother, baby, family, and lactation consultant to correct well-established but incorrect breastfeeding behaviors, we have never met a mother who was sorry that she chose to tackle the problem. Even if she tries and then gives up or achieves only a partial milk supply or partial breastfeeding relationship, she can take pleasure in knowing that she left no stone unturned. Unfortunately, mothers and babies with presentations similar to that of VJ and Baby E all too often fail to establish an exclusive breastfeeding relationship. Not only are patience, dedication, time, and skills needed, but there are often multiple underlying problems that need to be solved. With a thorough assessment and appropriate use of skills and equipment by the lactation consultant, success is much more likely. This particular dyad should be able to acheive an exclusive breastfeeding relationship. ( info)

9/101. How to assess slow growth in the breastfed infant. Birth to 3 months.

    Pediatricians must monitor early breastfeeding to detect and manage breastfeeding difficulties that lead to slow weight gain and subsequent low milk production. infant growth during the first 3 months of life provides a clear indication of breastfeeding progress. Healthy, breastfed infants lose less than 10% of birth weight and return to birth weight by age 2 weeks. They then gain weight steadily, at a minimum of 20 g per day, from age 2 weeks to 3 months. Any deviation from this pattern is cause for concern and for a thorough evaluation of the breastfeeding process. Evaluation includes history taking and physical examination for the mother and infant. observation of a breastfeeding session by a skilled clinician is crucial. A differential diagnosis is generated, followed by a problem-oriented management plan. Special techniques may be used to assist in complicated situations. Ongoing monitoring is required until weight gain has normalized. In most cases, early intervention can restore promptly infant growth and maternal milk supply. Underlying illness of the infant or mother must be considered if weight gain and milk supply do not respond to the earlier-mentioned interventions as expected. physicians are responsible for knowledge about additional resources and for coordination of breastfeeding care. Pediatricians have a pivotal role in achieving the goals of optimal breastfeeding and appropriate infant growth. ( info)

10/101. Pituitary function testing in amenorrhea-galactorrhea-hyperprolactinemia.

    Fifteen patients, age 16 to 55, presented with amenorrhea-galactorrhea-hyperprolactinemia. Pituitary function was evaluated by bolus injections of insulin, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in 13 and by LHRH and TRH in 2. Responses to growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol (F), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and prolactin were measured. GH, TSH, and F responses were normal in most cases. LH responses were decreased (P less than 0.025) in patients with abnormal sellar tomography, whereas FSH responses tended to decrease with elevated prolactin levels. Prolactin responses were absent in five of the seven cases which could be evaluated. The clinical value of such testing appears to be limited to an individualized basis, although some prognosis of ovulatory response to bromocriptine therapy may be obtained from the gonadotropin response. ( info)
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