Cases reported "Lactation Disorders"

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11/101. Disruption of lactogenesis by retained placental fragments.

    This case report describes a situation in which lack of milk production led the mother to seek help from a lactation consultant in private practice. Despite extensive breast stimulation with the baby at breast and mechanical breast expression, no milk was produced. Retained placenta was suspected by the lactation consultant. The mother was later diagnosed with placenta increta. Only when this condition was diagnosed and resolved did milk onset occur. It is important to evaluate for retained placental fragments when lactation appears to be delayed. ( info)

12/101. Primary empty sella, galactorrhea, hyperprolactinemia and renal tubular acidosis.

    Discussed here is a 41 year old woman with galactorrhea associated with the empty sella syndrome and mild renal tubular acidosis. Basal serum prolactin (PRL) levels were normal, but a 24 hour serum PRL secretory profile demonstrated an increased mean PRL concentration. serum PRL was appropriately suppressed by the administration of L-dopa; however, chlorpromazine stimulation resulted in a blunted serum PRL response. Pituitary luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, ACTH and thyroid stimulating hormone levels were normal. Thus, galactorrhea associated with an enlarged sella does not establish the diagnosis of a pituitary tumor, and pneumoencephalography must be performed to exclude the empty sella syndrome. ( info)

13/101. Delayed lactogenesis II secondary to gestational ovarian theca lutein cysts in two normal singleton pregnancies.

    Hyperreactio luteinalis is an unusual condition in which, during pregnancy, both ovaries are enlarged by multiple theca lutein cysts that produce a high level of testosterone. Several weeks postpartum, the cysts resolve and testosterone level returns to normal. Two case studies are presented in which mothers with gestational ovarian theca lutein cysts experienced delayed lactogenesis II. The elevated testosterone at the time of birth suppressed milk production. Once the testosterone level dropped to approximately 300 ng/dL, milk production began. After the initial delay, both mothers breastfed their infants without supplementation. ( info)

14/101. Effects of CB-154 (2-Br-alpha-ergocryptine) on prolactin and growth hormone release in an acromegalic patient with galactorrhea.

    An acromegalic patient with galactorrhea was treated with an ergot alkaloid, 2-Br-alpha-ergocryptine (CB-154). serum prolactin decreased rapidly to normal level by CB-154 and the complete cessation of galactorrhea was noted. The inhibitory effect of CB-154 On growth hormone (GH) release was also noted, but slight. The mechanism of inhibitory action of CB-154 on both prolactin and GH secretion was discussed in connection with the experimental model of pituitary tumors, in which both hormones were produced by a single type of tumor cells. The discontinuation of CB-154 treatment was associated with the return of both prolactin and GH levels to the initial high values with resumption of galactorrhea. ( info)

15/101. Breastmilk oversupply despite retained placental fragment.

    In clients experiencing oversupply, lactation consultants should question more closely the frequency of milk ejection reflexes and whether the mother is experiencing them only during breastfeeding or frequently, even while not nursing. If the mother is still experiencing vaginal bleeding, even if she is producing large quantities of milk, she should be encouraged to talk with her health care provider about having a sonogram in order to rule out the possibility of a retained placental fragment. ( info)

16/101. Delayed lactogenesis II: a comparison of four cases.

    Lactogenesis II is the onset of copious milk production (i.e., the milk "coming in"), which usually occurs between 30 to 40 hours postpartum. When lactogenesis II fails to occur or is delayed, it may be due to a number of underlying hormonal or non-hormonal conditions. Of the various hormonal etiologies, many can be identified with the aid of a few standard blood tests. Gestational ovarian theca lutein cysts may cause delayed lactogenesis II and are fairly easily detected by ordering testosterone levels. Although this condition can delay lactogenesis II for as long as 31 days, with proper management women affected by these cysts have established breastfeeding. Three of the four women reviewed in this article were eventually able to produce 100% of their infants' caloric requirements. ( info)

17/101. breast augmentation & lactation outcome: a case report.

    This article contains two case reports that illustrate the difficulty two mothers experienced when they mechanically expressed their milk for their very preterm infants. Each of the mothers was enrolled in a separate research study and had previously undergone surgery for breast augmentation. Neither of the mothers was able to provide an adequate milk supply for her preterm infant. Preoperative counseling and informed consent for breast augmentation is vital if the mother desires to exclusively provide mother's milk for the infant. ( info)

18/101. breast hypoplasia and breastfeeding: a case history.

    Hypoplasia, or glandular insufficiency, of the breasts is an infrequent cause of breastfeeding failure or infant failure to thrive. Early evaluation of the breasts of early identification of infant indicators can enable mothers to breastfeed while providing appropriate supplementation to facilitate satisfactory hydration and growth. A case report is presented of a highly motivated mother with minimal breast tissue who was able to soothe four of her infants at her breasts, supplying some breastmilk, while providing the bulk of their nutritional requirements by other means. At the time of writing she is tandem breastfeeding as well as providing artificial milk by bottle. ( info)

19/101. Severe hypernatremic dehydration secondary to undetected lactation failure: usefulness of sodium levels in breast milk.

    There is a concern that lactation failure and neonatal morbidity might be more common than previously thought. Maybe the early discharge, the lack of timely follow-up, or poor information during pregnancy or after delivery play important roles. A case of severe hypernatremic dehydration secondary to lactation failure is reported and we analyze recent recommendations. ( info)

20/101. diabetes insipidus and galactorrhea caused by histiocytosis X.

    A 44-year-old woman with diabetes insipidus of 3 years duration was found to have histiocytosis X. This was based on clinical, radiological and pathological findings consistent with the diagnosis. Furthermore, she developed spontaneous galactorrhea during the course. Endocrine studies of hypothalamic-pituitary function revealed completely impaired secretion of gonadotropin, growth hormone and anti-diuretic hormone, and possible partial impairment of adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion, while thyroid stimulating hormone secretion remained intact. Persistently elevated plasma levels of human prolactin were also demonstrated, which were unaffected by administration of either thyrotropin releasing hormone, l-DOPA or water loading, but suppressed significantly by CB-154, an ergot alkaloid. These results suggest that abnormalities of the patient's endocrine function may be mainly accounted for by a single hypothalamic lesion. ( info)
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