Cases reported "Landau-Kleffner Syndrome"

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1/5. Prosodic preservation in landau-kleffner syndrome: a case report.

    landau-kleffner syndrome (LKS) is a rare acquired condition of auditory verbal agnosia and convulsive disorder in children. It has been proposed that there is a functional relationship between electrical disturbance and the speech defect. Prosody or the melody of language, as described by Monrad-Krohn (1947), is one aspect of non-verbal communication which is distributed bilaterally in the brain. Prosodic parameters of expression and perception in one 7.5-year-old child were tested to see if they were preserved as a means of communication. The child was observed during video-electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring over a 48-hour period. All utterances were recorded and subject to analysis for the salience and variation of acoustic correlates of prosody. Prosodic comprehension was measured using specific perceptual tasks previously presented to normal children between the ages of 5.5 and 8.5. Despite being unable to meaningfully use or perceive phonemes, the child was able to use variations in fundamental frequency, duration and intensity of utterances, to convey both emotional and propositional intent. Similarly, the child was able to discriminate prosodic contours of a male adult voice to an age equivalent to 5.5 to 6.5 years. This argues in favour of the notion for educating such children not only through the visual channel but also through the auditory channel.
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keywords = communication
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2/5. Accessibility of spoken, written, and sign language in landau-kleffner syndrome: a linguistic and functional MRI study.

    landau-kleffner syndrome (LKS) is an acquired aphasia which begins in childhood and is thought to arise from an epileptic disorder within the auditory speech cortex. Although the epilepsy usually subsides at puberty, a severe communication impairment often persists. Here we report on a detailed study of a 26-year old, left-handed male, with onset of LKS at age 5 years, who is aphasic for English but who learned British sign language (BSL) at age 13. We have investigated his skills in different language modalities, recorded EEGs during wakefulness, sleep, and under conditions of auditory stimulation, measured brain stem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEP), and performed functional MRI (fMRI) during a range of linguistic tasks. Our investigation demonstrated severe restrictions in comprehension and production of spoken English as well as lip-reading, while reading was comparatively less impaired. BSL was by far the most efficient mode of communication. All EEG recordings were normal, while BAEP showed minor abnormalities. fMRI revealed: 1) powerful and extensive bilateral (R > L) activation of auditory cortices in response to heard speech, much stronger than when listening to music; 2) very little response to silent lip-reading; 3) strong activation in the temporo-parieto-occipital association cortex, exclusively in the right hemisphere (RH), when viewing BSL signs. Analysis of these findings provides novel insights into the disturbance of the auditory speech cortex which underlies LKS and its diagnostic evaluation by fMRI, and underpins a strategy of restoring communication abilities in LKS through a natural sign language of the deaf (with Video)
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keywords = communication
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3/5. Hemispheric integrative therapy in landau-kleffner syndrome: applications for rehabilitation sciences.

    A case study is presented of a 14-year-old right-handed Caucasian female diagnosed with the landau-kleffner syndrome (LKS) at the age 3 1/2 years. Her LKS symptoms presented with abrupt disruption in language after normal development, electroencephalogram (EEG) brain-wave abnormality, seizure activity, inability to read, and impairment in her motor skills. After 11 years of pharmacological and special education interventions with no significant improvement in any measurable area of function, a multimodal approach using techniques purportedly aimed at facilitating inter-hemispheric communication was provided. At completion of the program, EEG was controlled, reading, language, and auditory processing improved and objective behavioral-social measures improved significantly.
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keywords = communication
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4/5. Surgical treatment of severe autistic regression in childhood epilepsy.

    We report 2 children with partial epilepsy who manifested social and language regression and partial recovery after surgical treatment. One child had seizures since the first 2 weeks of life, caused by a right temporal dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor and regression in the latter part of the first year; seizures were relieved and some functions were recovered after temporal lobe resection at 12 months of age. The second child developed epilepsy at 3 years 3 months, and between 5 years 9 months and 6 years 1 month he became aphasic (landau-kleffner syndrome) and lost social functioning, manifesting a very severe behavior disorder. He exhibited a significant improvement in communication, social functioning, and behavior after left multiple subpial transections. Both children manifested evidence of subclinical seizure activity in both temporal lobes. Their clinical picture was one of combined language and autistic regression, and the autistic features demonstrated a clear response to surgical treatment. We suggest that in pediatric epilepsy surgical programs, autistic regression should prompt urgent investigation if drug treatment is not effective.
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5/5. Chronic auditory agnosia following landau-kleffner syndrome: a 23 year outcome study.

    We report a 27-year-old woman with chronic auditory agnosia following landau-kleffner syndrome (LKS) diagnosed at age 4 1/2. She grew up in the hearing/speaking community with some exposure to manually coded English and American sign language (ASL). Manually coded (signed) English is her preferred mode of communication. comprehension and production of spoken language remain severely compromised. Disruptions in auditory processing can be observed in tests of pitch and duration, suggesting that her disorder is not specific to language. Linguistic analysis of signed, spoken, and written English indicates her language system is intact but compromised because of impoverished input during the critical period for acquisition of spoken phonology. Specifically, although her sign language phonology is intact, spoken language phonology is markedly impaired. We argue that deprivation of auditory input during a period critical for the development of a phonological grammar and auditory-verbal short-term memory has limited her lexical and syntactic development in specific ways.
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keywords = communication
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