Cases reported "Landau-Kleffner Syndrome"

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1/16. Acquired aphasia in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    A 12-year-old boy developed a convulsion, hemiparesis, and acquired aphasia with paroxysmal electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities consisting of repetitive spikes and waves in the left centro-parietal region. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging disclosed high intensity lesions in the left pre-Sylvian and right frontal areas. He was diagnosed as having acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and thus the oral administration of phenytoin and steroid pulse therapy were begun. With these treatments, his hemiparesis disappeared and the aphasia also improved gradually. magnetic resonance imaging examination revealed the disappearance of the previously noted abnormalities, and the EEG abnormalities disappeared as well. This patient is a rare case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis presenting an acquired aphasia. A focal lesion of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis may be responsible for the acquired aphasia. The distinction from landau-kleffner syndrome is also discussed.
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2/16. Childhood epilepsy with neuropsychological regression and continuous spike waves during sleep: epilepsy surgery in a young adult.

    We describe the case of a man with a history of complex partial seizures and severe language, cognitive and behavioural regression during early childhood (3.5 years), who underwent epilepsy surgery at the age of 25 years. His early epilepsy had clinical and electroencephalogram features of the syndromes of epilepsy with continuous spike waves during sleep and acquired epileptic aphasia (landau-kleffner syndrome), which we considered initially to be of idiopathic origin. seizures recurred at 19 years and presurgical investigations at 25 years showed a lateral frontal epileptic focus with spread to Broca's area and the frontal orbital regions. Histopathology revealed a focal cortical dysplasia, not visible on magnetic resonance imaging. The prolonged but reversible early regression and the residual neuropsychological disorders during adulthood were probably the result of an active left frontal epilepsy, which interfered with language and behaviour during development. Our findings raise the question of the role of focal cortical dysplasia as an aetiology in the syndromes of epilepsy with continuous spike waves during sleep and acquired epileptic aphasia.
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3/16. The spectrum of acquired cognitive disturbances in children with partial epilepsy and continuous spike-waves during sleep. A 4-year follow-up case study with prolonged reversible learning arrest and dysfluency.

    We report a longitudinal study (7-11 years) of a previously normal boy (MR) who presented from the age of 5 years with rare partial motor seizures and atypical 'absences'. The history revealed a stagnation in development and speech difficulties a few months before onset of his epilepsy. The first waking electroencephalogram (EEG) showed rare generalized discharges during hyperventilation. magnetic resonance imaging revealed an arachnoid cyst in the frontotemporal region. Although his epilepsy never became severe, he experienced important learning difficulties. Subsequent EEGs became increasingly active with left focal epileptic activity and continuous spike-waves during sleep (CSWS) present from the first sleep EEG. The first neuropsychological evaluation (7 years) showed a speech dysfluency, word finding and naming problems, inattention and low intelligence quotient. carbamazepine was changed to clobazam and later ethosuximide was added with a rapid improvement (within 1 month) in linguistic and cognitive performances as well as in behaviour. Furthermore, the patient showed considerable progress in acquisition over the next months whereas learning to read had previously been very difficult. The epileptic activity gradually disappeared and he was able to follow regular school at an age-appropriate level. This case adds a new facet to the already recognized more obvious acquired neuropsychological disturbances known to occur in some partial childhood epilepsy syndromes with CSWS (aphasia, dementia). It manifested as prolonged insidious stagnation in learning and subtle language disability. This study documents rapid specific language improvement with change in anti-epileptic drugs and a restored immediate and long-term learning capacity, suggesting a direct but 'hidden' role of epilepsy.
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4/16. Effects of high-dose intravenous corticosteroid therapy in landau-kleffner syndrome.

    Two children with landau-kleffner syndrome were successfully treated with antiepileptic drugs and a high-dose intravenous corticosteroid. A combination of valproate and a benzodiazepine (clonazepam or diazepam) ameliorated epileptic seizures and electroencephalographic spikes and waves, but speech disturbances persisted. Both patients were treated with an intravenous infusion of high-dose methylprednisolone sodium succinate (20 mg/kg daily) for 3 consecutive days. This infusion was repeated three times with a 4-day interval between treatments, which resulted in a rapid improvement in speech ability. After intravenous therapy, prednisolone was given orally (2 mg/kg daily for 1 month, then gradually withdrawn), which maintained the clinical improvement in speech.
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5/16. landau-kleffner syndrome with onset at 18 months and an initial diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder.

    We report one of the youngest and most intensively studied cases of landau-kleffner syndrome, with a follow-up of 5 years. The boy developed normally until the age of 18 months when he had two attacks, possibly epileptic. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was normal. Over the next 5 months he lost his six to ten words, did not engage with other children and became mute. When he was 34 months old a child-psychiatrist suggested a diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder or developmental dysphasia. An EEG 3 months later showed abnormalities typical of landau-kleffner syndrome. His non-verbal abilities were normal as well as his neurological examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A trial of clobazam and vigabatrin was unsuccessful. When he was 4 years and 9 months old he was treated with corticosteroids and within 3 months his vocabulary increased from the standard for 1 1/2 years of age to that for 2 1/2 years of age. His language abilities continued to improve slowly until a stagnation period at the age of 6 years and 9 months. A second course of corticosteroids improved his comprehension and vocabulary to an almost normal level, and his EEG normalized. A total of 11 EEGs were obtained; all included sleep, but continuous spike and wave during slow sleep was never documented. This report illustrates that landau-kleffner syndrome should be considered as an alternative diagnosis in children diagnosed with developmental dysphasia. An EEG including sleep should be considered, and in the presence of abnormalities a trial of anti-epileptic drugs or corticosteroids should be undertaken.
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6/16. Successful use of intravenous immunoglobulin as initial monotherapy in landau-kleffner syndrome.

    PURPOSE: There is a need for new and more effective therapies for landau-kleffner syndrome. In this article we present the first case in which a patient with landau-kleffner syndrome was given intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) as his first and only therapy and responded to it. methods: This previously healthy, left-handed boy presented at 31 months of age with a 3-month history of auditory agnosia, behavioral abnormalities, and progressive, eventually complete loss of speech. electroencephalography (EEG) showed frequent and, in sleep, continuous right central and temporal spike slow wave discharges. Metabolic workup, magnetic resonance imaging, and auditory evoked potentials were normal. cerebrospinal fluid IgG index was high (18%). The patient was treated with IVIG, as his initial and only therapy, receiving 500 mg/kg/day over four consecutive days. RESULTS: On the third day of IVIG, the patient started using single words, and on the fourth, two-word sentences. Two weeks later his speech and behavior returned to normal. At the end of 4 days of IVIG therapy, EEG was within normal limits. Two months later, however, he had a severe relapse clinically and by EEG. He promptly responded to another course of IVIG. A subsequent cerebrospinal fluid IgG index showed normalization (6%). Three months later he had essentially normal speech and behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated, immediate, and remarkable clinical and EEG responses of this patient suggest that IVIG was helpful as first-line therapy in the treatment of landau-kleffner syndrome. It also supports the hypothesis that immunological mechanisms contributed to his symptoms.
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7/16. Epileptic syndromes in childhood: clinical features, outcomes, and treatment.

    We reviewed the clinical features, outcome, and treatment of many of the epileptic syndromes that begin in the childhood from 2 to 12 years of age, using a review of the literature and personal experience, with most references to authoritative texts. The developmental tasks of childhood are centered on refinement of motor skills and development of complex intellectual and social skills. The childhood onset epilepsies can be divided into benign, intermediate, and catastrophic based on their impact on childhood development. The clearest benign epilepsy is benign rolandic epilepsy, which often does not require medication treatment. The definition of benign occipital epilepsy is still often vague. In the intermediate category, childhood absence epilepsy often has associated learning disorders and a poor social outcome. About 50% of children with cryptogenic partial seizures have a very benign course, even though their epilepsy syndrome is not well defined. Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS ) has a dominant inheritance with a defined defect in cerebral sodium channels, but varies considerably in severity within affected members of the same kindred. The catastrophic epilepsies in childhood all have an inconsistent response to AED treatment and include continuous spike-wave in slow sleep (with variable severity), landau-kleffner syndrome (with a confusing overlap with autistic regression), the Lennox Gastaut syndrome (with broad defining features), and myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (with important overlaps with Lennox-Gastaut). Many of the epilepsies that begin in childhood are benign. Others interfere seriously with cognitive and social development.
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8/16. landau-kleffner syndrome beginning with stuttering: case report.

    landau-kleffner syndrome is marked by an acquired aphasia in children who have had normal language and motor development. A 3.5-year-old girl was referred to our clinic with stuttering. She was diagnosed as having benign myoclonic epilepsy of infancy at 3.5 months of age and treated with valproic acid. Her electroencephalogram (EEG) returned to normal at the end of the first year. The therapy was stopped after a 2-year seizure-free period. She started to stutter prominently 3 months after the discontinuation of antiepilepsy drugs. She had no verbal agnosia. Her EEG revealed multiple spike and wave discharges. She was diagnosed as having landau-kleffner syndrome. Her previous epilepsy history had contributed to her having obtained an EEG in the early period. We suggest that if a child with normal language function starts to stutter, landau-kleffner syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis.
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9/16. Hemispheric integrative therapy in landau-kleffner syndrome: applications for rehabilitation sciences.

    A case study is presented of a 14-year-old right-handed Caucasian female diagnosed with the landau-kleffner syndrome (LKS) at the age 3 1/2 years. Her LKS symptoms presented with abrupt disruption in language after normal development, electroencephalogram (EEG) brain-wave abnormality, seizure activity, inability to read, and impairment in her motor skills. After 11 years of pharmacological and special education interventions with no significant improvement in any measurable area of function, a multimodal approach using techniques purportedly aimed at facilitating inter-hemispheric communication was provided. At completion of the program, EEG was controlled, reading, language, and auditory processing improved and objective behavioral-social measures improved significantly.
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10/16. Episodic receptive aphasia in a child with landau-kleffner syndrome: PET correlates.

    We report a four-year-old boy with landau-kleffner syndrome (LKS) characterized by episodic receptive aphasia lasting for few weeks followed by gradual recovery of baseline language functions. Neuropsychological evaluation during an episode showed severe impairment in verbal skills and comprehension, but relative preservation of non-verbal skills. Although he could carry on a conversation during remission, neuropsychological evaluation demonstrated findings reflective of receptive language deficits. Prolonged EEG disclosed frequent sharp-wave activity in the left and right temporal regions but no electrographic seizures. glucose metabolism PET scan during the fourth episode of aphasia revealed intense hypermetabolism in the left temporal neocortex. Awake EEG during the PET tracer uptake period showed 6.0 spikes/min in the left temporal region and 4.0 spikes/min in the right. A repeat PET scan during remission showed hypometabolism in the left temporal cortex. Awake EEG during the FDG uptake period showed 16.0 spikes/min in the right temporal region and 0.3 spikes/min in the left. During his fifth aphasic episode, EEG (without PET) showed 0.16 spikes/min in the right temporal region and none in the left. Intermittent short episodes of predominantly receptive aphasia with near-total recovery between episodes can be one of the clinical presentations of LKS. This case illustrates the dynamic changes of glucose metabolism in the temporal lobe during episodes of aphasia and remission in a case with LKS. The clinical course of our patient with transient EEG and PET findings suggest that glucose metabolism in LKS cannot be attributed solely to interictal epileptiform activities on scalp EEG.
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