Cases reported "Landau-Kleffner Syndrome"

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11/16. landau-kleffner syndrome with mitochondrial respiratory chain-complex I deficiency.

    landau-kleffner syndrome is characterized by epileptic aphasia associated with electrical status epilepticus of slow wave sleep. A 5-year-old female, who had manifested normal developmental progress, was referred with principal complaints of fluctuating sensory aphasia and bizarre behavior during the preceding 4 months. landau-kleffner syndrome was confirmed by clinical and electroencephalographic features; in addition, the patient's mitochondrial respiratory chain-complex I deficiency was confirmed by fibroblast culture with the evidence of energy metabolism disorder. This patient's seizures were intractable to many antiepileptic drugs, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and intravenous immunoglobulin, with catastrophic cognitive and behavioral decline, but the seizures were successfully controlled by ketogenic diet with supplementary mitochondrial cocktail including coenzyme Q10, riboflavin, L-carnitine, and high-dose multivitamins. The patient finally regained fully normal cognitive functioning. landau-kleffner syndrome with mitochondrial respiratory chain-complex I deficiency was controlled in this case by ketogenic diet and supplementary mitochondrial cocktail therapy.
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12/16. Efficacy of very high dose steroid treatment in a case of landau-kleffner syndrome.

    landau-kleffner syndrome (LKS) is an acquired childhood aphasia associated with paroxysmal bitemporal electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities and, sometimes, clinical seizures. We report the case of a female aged 5 years 6 months who presented clinically with apparent hearing loss, deterioration in speech, and seizure activity over 12 days. The female had previous detailed speech/language assessments at 3 to 4 years of age due to articulation delay. LKS was diagnosed on EEG with bitemporal spike and wave activity during sleep. The patient was treated with high dose prednisolone 3mg/kg/day, intensive speech/language therapy, and followed a modified educational program. We recorded a marked regression in receptive and expressive language skills, as well as her speech, language, and cognitive profiles before and during treatment with prednisolone, during an 18-month follow-up period. The patient demonstrated an excellent clinical response highlighting the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to management of LKS.
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13/16. Acquired epileptiform opercular syndrome: a second case report, review of the literature, and comparison to the landau-kleffner syndrome.

    A 5-year-old girl developed recurrent prolonged episodes of severe oral apraxia, dysarthria, and drooling, similar to the opercular syndrome in children. Each episode lasted several weeks to > 6 months and was associated with exacerbation of epileptiform activity in her EEG. Electrographic status epilepticus during slow wave sleep (ESES) was recorded during three of the exacerbations. The EEG improved markedly when clinical symptoms subsided. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were not effective, although there was some improvement when they were combined with a ketogenic diet. A similar case was described by Roulet et al. We believe that this is a distinct epileptic syndrome, equivalent to the landau-kleffner syndrome (LKS).
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14/16. brain single photon emission computed tomography imaging in landau-kleffner syndrome.

    Five right-handed children with landau-kleffner syndrome (LKS) who had disease onset between the ages of 3 and 9 years were studied with EEG and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before and, in four cases, after 6 months of corticosteroid treatment. EEG findings included both focal and generalized spikes as well as spike-wave discharges with bilateral temporal predominance. These increased markedly during sleep in 1 child, and continuous spike-and-wave complexes appeared during slow-wave sleep in another patient. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated verbal auditory agnosia. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 4 children and was normal. brain SPECT imaging demonstrated abnormal perfusion in the left temporal lobe in all patients. The response to corticosteroid therapy was mixed. Our findings reinforce the concept that LKS is a functional disease affecting the language-dominant brain areas. We conclude that SPECT imaging may be of diagnostic assistance in the evaluation of this syndrome of unknown etiology.
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15/16. Correlation between CSWS and aphasia in landau-kleffner syndrome: a study of three cases.

    We report three typical cases of landau-kleffner syndrome with varied courses. The very frequent discharges in sleep EEGs, often showing the patterns of CSWS (continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep), either typical (spike-wave complex occupying over 85% of slow-wave sleep duration) or atypical (spike-waves occupying less than 85% of slow-wave sleep), were presented in all our cases. The CSWS seems correlated with aphasia in our cases. Since the disappearance of CSWS might be indicative of a lagged improvement in aphasia, we suggest that sufficiently long-term treatment with anticonvulsants and/or corticosteroids is worthwhile, if the EEG is improved significantly by this treatment.
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16/16. landau-kleffner syndrome: consistent response to repeated intravenous gamma-globulin doses: a case report.

    PURPOSE: Although several treatments have been tried for landau-kleffner syndrome (LKS) too many patients are refractory to known therapies. We report an 8-year-old girl who failed other therapies but who had a consistent response after treatment with intravenous (i.v.) gamma-globulin. methods: We monitored the girl from the age of 6 years, when she presented with a 6-month history of loss of language with normal hearing, normal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IgG index, and an EEG showing almost continuous, predominantly left-sided spike- and slow-wave complexes. She had no clinical seizures and did not respond to consecutive trials of valproate (VPA), clonazepam (CZP), prednisone, and carbamazepine (CBZ). She received three courses of intravenous (i.v.) gamma-globulin; after each course, clinical and electrographic improvement lasted a few months. After each of the initial two courses, clinical improvement lasted 3-4 months but was followed by recurrence of the spikes on the EEG and by speech deterioration. RESULTS: However, her last remission has been continuous for the past 16 months. Her CSF IgG index became normal after the first i.v. gamma-globulin infusion. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our experience with this patient and on other investigators' experience, we believe that further research into immunologic mechanisms and therapies of this syndrome are warranted.
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