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1/31. technology applications in intervention for preschool-age children with language disorders.

    Preschool-age children are capable of using computers and benefiting from developmentally appropriate software. Computer technology has been used successfully in therapy for young children with speech and language disorders; however, the clinician is a crucial factor in such success. Clinicians choose communication goals and appropriate software, plan precomputer activities, provide appropriate models and opportunities during the computer activity, and provide postcomputer activities that ensure the generalization of new skills. In this article, we discuss and illustrate the characteristics of developmentally appropriate computer-based activities and the role of clinicians in planning and implementing these activities for young children.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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2/31. Facilitated communication: rejected in science, accepted in court-a case study and analysis of the use of FC evidence under Frye and Daubert.

    This article traces the phenomenon of facilitated communication (FC) from its introduction to the united states in 1990 to its use in recent court proceedings. FC is an alleged breakthrough technique that enables nonverbal individuals with developmental disabilities to communicate via a form of assisted typing. Widespread use of FC resulted in miraculous communications and surprising allegations of abuse. The growing importance and notoriety of FC attracted the interest of the scientific community which rejected the technique after numerous controlled studies were undertaken. Despite the rejection of FC by the scientific community, however, some courts have accepted this unproven technique by evading their state's test of scientific admissibility. It is asserted that court decisions admitting FC evidence are pretextural, and it is argued that FC should not be admitted into court proceedings. In addition, this report analyzes the future of FC in those states that have adopted the newer Daubert standard for scientific evidence.
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ranking = 6
keywords = communication
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3/31. language development and assessment in children with human immunodeficiency virus: 3 to 6 years.

    Young children infected or exposed, or both to the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) present with a variety of speech, language, and communication problems. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the impact that hiv has on young children from 3 to 6 years of age. Issues concerning medically related problems are discussed, along with assessment criteria and descriptions of communication disorders among hiv-infected and -exposed children.
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ranking = 676.57423325871
keywords = communication disorder, communication
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4/31. speech patterns in Kabuki make-up syndrome: a case report.

    The case of a girl aged 3 years and 8 months with Kabuki make-up syndrome is reported. At presentation, she had normal cognitive functioning, and she also had a history of otitis media, a submucous cleft palate, and some hypotonia. Language testing showed normal receptive skills and good expressive vocabulary but poor morphosyntactic abilities. speech analysis showed that she was capable of producing most of the sounds of her native language but demonstrated high variability in production of the sounds. In addition, she inconsistently simplified words by application of several phonologic processes. Possible explanations for the communication problems demonstrated are discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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5/31. Disordered recognition of facial identity and emotions in three Asperger type autists.

    In this report we aim to explore severe deficits in facial affect recognition in three boys all of whom meet the criteria of Asperger's syndrome (AS), as well as overt prosopagnosia in one (B) and covert prosopagnosia in the remaining two (C and D). Subject B, with a familially-based talent of being highly gifted in physics and mathematics, showed no interest in people, a quasi complete lack of comprehension of emotions, and very poor emotional reactivity. The marked neuropsychological deficits were a moderate prosopagnosia and severely disordered recognition of facial emotions, gender and age. Expressive facial emotion, whole body psychomotor expression and speech prosody were quasi absent as well. In all three boys these facial processing deficits were more or less isolated, and general visuospatial functions, attention, formal language and scholastic performances were normal or even highly developed with the exception of deficient gestalt perception in B. We consider the deficient facial emotion perception as an important pathogenetic symptom for the autistic behaviour in the three boys. prosopagnosia, the absent facial and bodily expression, and speech prosody were important but varying co-morbid disorders. The total clinical picture of non-verbal disordered communication is a complex of predominantly bilateral and/or right hemisphere cortical deficits. Moreover, in B, insensitivity to pain, smells, noises and internal bodily feelings suggested a more general emotional anaesthesia and/or a deficient means of expression. It is possible that a limbic component might be involved, thus making affective appreciation also deficient.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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6/31. The use of a digital voice output device to facilitate language development in a child with developmental apraxia of speech: a case study.

    PURPOSE: The study aimed at describing the language and communication abilities of a child diagnosed with Developmental Apraxia of speech (DAS), who used a Macaw Digital voice output device. METHOD: This case study describes the training of a mother in the use of a Macaw digital voice output device to give her child with DAS access to higher levels of language functioning. It also provides longitudinal information pertaining to the child's school progress in the three years following the implementation of the device. RESULTS: Results indicate that the use of a digital device is useful in facilitating communication and language development in a young child with DAS. Specific evidence of an increase in the cognitive complexity of questions directed at the child is provided, as well as an increase in the number of questions directed to the child. Regarding the child's responses, it was noted that appropriate answers increased, as did the number of communication modalities and communication attempts. Longitudinal data indicates that the child was able to maintain these positive impacts. CONCLUSIONS: Digital voice output devices can be used as a method to facilitate higher cognitive functioning and has various positive impacts on the functioning of a child with DAS. These devices need to be considered as a tool to facilitate the development of communication and speech development for this population.
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ranking = 5
keywords = communication
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7/31. Brief report: increasing communication skills for an elementary-aged student with autism using the Picture Exchange Communication System.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the spontaneous communication skills of a 6-year-old girl with autism across her home and school environments. The effects of the PECS were also examined for social interaction. Results indicated increases in spontaneous language (i.e., requests and comments) including use of the icons and verbalizations across those settings in which PECS was implemented. Intelligible verbalizations increased in two of three settings, and changes in peer social interaction were noted in one of the two school settings.
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ranking = 5
keywords = communication
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8/31. Interaural cross correlation of event-related potentials and diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of auditory processing disorder: a case study.

    In a previous publication (Jerger et al, 2002), we presented event-related potential (ERP) data on a pair of 10-year-old twin girls (twins C and E), one of whom (Twin E) showed strong evidence of auditory processing disorder. For the present paper, we analyzed cross-correlation functions of ERP waveforms generated in response to the presentation of target stimuli to either the right or left ears in a dichotic paradigm. There were four conditions; three involved the processing of real words for either phonemic, semantic, or spectral targets; one involved the processing of a nonword acoustic signal. Marked differences in the cross-correlation functions were observed. In the case of Twin C, cross-correlation functions were uniformly normal across both hemispheres. The functions for Twin E, however, suggest poorly correlated neural activity over the left parietal region during the three word processing conditions, and over the right parietal area in the nonword acoustic condition. Differences between the twins' brains were evaluated using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). For Twin E, results showed reduced anisotropy over the length of the midline corpus callosum and adjacent lateral structures, implying reduced myelin integrity. Taken together, these findings suggest that failure to achieve appropriate temporally correlated bihemispheric brain activity in response to auditory stimulation, perhaps as a result of faulty interhemispheric communication via corpus callosum, may be a factor in at least some children with auditory processing disorder.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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9/31. Effects of peer training and written text cueing on social communication of school-age children with pervasive developmental disorder.

    This study consecutively examined the effects of 2 social interventions-- peer training and written text treatment--on the social communication of 5 elementary students with pervasive developmental disorder. Each child with autism was paired with 2 peers without disabilities to form 5 triads. In Intervention 1 (peer training), peers were taught to use 5 facilitative social skills over 5 days. After peer training, 4 children with autism increased or used more stable rates of initiations and contingent responses overall. However, all children continued to demonstrate deficits in specific social-communication skills. Once Intervention 2 (direct instruction using written text cues) was implemented, increased use of 3 different communication skills was observed across all 5 participants. In addition, social validity outcomes revealed improved quality of child-peer interactions, 2 teacher reports of improved social skill development, and improved acceptance and friendship ratings for the children with autism. Results support the use of written text cues to improve children's social communication with peers, and suggest that combining approaches may be necessary to improve the quality of children's relationships.
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ranking = 8
keywords = communication
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10/31. Communication abilities in a case of rett syndrome.

    The communication skills in a 4-year-old girl with rett syndrome (RS) prior to, during and after the characteristic regression period are presented. The case study serves to provide a detailed description of the typical communication skills seen in this population, even though this child must be considered an atypical case of RS. The case study emphasizes the need for the assessment and treatment of communication skills in cases with RS to focus on the intentionality and functionality of the child's communication.
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ranking = 4
keywords = communication
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