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1/79. In the long run...longitudinal studies of psychopathology in children. Committee on child psychology. Group for the Advancement of psychiatry. Report no.143.

    longitudinal studies are difficult to do well. Too short a study and the results may be meaningless. Too long a study and the subjects cannot be found, money runs out, and research methods become seriously out of date. Despite these problems, there have been some longitudinal studies done that have greatly advanced our understanding of the nature and the treatment of psychopathology in childhood. Without these studies, much less would be known about the clinical course of important disorders, the effects of treatments, and the various risk and protective factors. None of these studies has been perfect. Some longitudinal studies did not focus on quite the right questions, some produced contradictory results, and others produced results that were hard to interpret. What have we learned from the longitudinal studies reviewed in this Group for the Advancement of psychiatry (GAP) report? Many of the things that we have learned have been surprising--even counterintuitive. Pre- and perinatal insults need not necessarily lead to serious consequences in later life. Premature infants, if raised in nondeprived settings, are not likely to be mentally retarded or learning disabled. Today, of course, premature infants who would not have been kept alive 15 years ago are surviving. Will this advancement led to an untoward outcome? We do not know. New longitudinal studies need to be done. Certain serious illnesses emerging later in childhood may be associated with a greater risk of psychopathology. This risk is true at least for those with asthma. Psychological factors, such as psychological stress, also may lead to exacerbation of asthmatic attacks. Whether other illnesses are associated with a greater risk of psychopathology simply has not been studied adequately. infant temperamental characteristics can be classified and measured; however, they appear to predict little in terms of later personality development or psychopathology. Although temperamental characteristics measured in infancy correlate poorly with temperamental characteristics measured at age 4 or 5 years, they appear to be much more stable and correlate well with temperament at ages 8 and 12 years. Some of these temperamental characteristics, particularly aggressivity and negativity at age 5 years, are serious risk factors for behavioral psychopathology at age 8 or 12 years and, possibly, at later ages as well. Aggressive, negative 5-year-olds do not necessarily grow out of their problems. Their problems are important and should be dealt with when children are age 5 years. What does appear important is early language development. Delays in language development or developmental language disorders are risk factors for later psychopathology. Fifty percent of school-age children with language problems requiring speech and language therapy also have diagnosable psychopathology. Hyperactivity and short attention span are characteristics that tend to persist in later childhood--even adulthood. Alone, each of these characteristics may not be a risk factor for later psychopathology, but, when accompanied by oppositional behavior and conduct disorder, the outcome is detrimental to the child. Many studies have shown that children with these comorbid problems are at risk later for becoming delinquent and antisocial. conduct disorder in childhood, which is much more common in males, is a risk factor for later delinquency, even if it is not associated with hyperactivity. Again, early intervention is important. The effects of comorbidity in this instance can be serious. comorbidity in general, especially as children grow older, leads to adverse social, academic, and psychopathological outcomes. depression does occur in children, in all of its adult manifestations. Mania, in contrast, is rarely seen in children younger than age 12 years. depression in school-age children can be severe or mild. In contrast to adolescents with depression, depressed children are most likely to have somatic compla
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2/79. Central deafness in a young child with moyamoya disease: paternal linkage in a Caucasian family: two case reports and a review of the literature.

    A case of 'central deafness' is presented in a 3-year-old male Caucasian child with moyamoya disease (MMD); a rare, progressive and occlusive cerebrovascular disorder predominantly affecting the carotid artery system. documentation of normal peripheral auditory function and brainstem pathway integrity is provided by acoustic admittance, otoacoustic emission and brainstem auditory evoked potential measurements. The lack of behavioral response to sound, and absent middle and long latency auditory evoked potentials suggest thalamo-cortical dysfunction. magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse ischemic damage in subcortical white matter including areas of the temporal lobes. In addition, there were multiple and focal cortical infarctions in both cerebral hemispheres, focused primarily in the frontal, parietal and temporal areas. Taken together, these structural and functional abnormalities in addition to severely delayed speech and language development are consistent with the diagnosis of central deafness and suggest a disconnection between higher brainstem and cortical auditory areas. The child's father also has MMD, but was diagnosed only recently. The presence of paternal linkage is informative since it rules out x-linked recessive and maternal inheritance. To our knowledge, this represents the first documented case of paternal linkage in MMD with central deafness in a Caucasian child with no apparent Japanese ancestry. Herein, we focus on central auditory dysfunction and consider how lesion-induced changes have contributed to a deficit in basic auditory responsiveness, including a severe disturbance in receptive and expressive auditory-based speech and language skills.
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3/79. Babbling of an infant with a repaired cleft lip: a case study.

    The infant born with a cleft lip is faced with risk factors that threaten the development of speech-language skills. The earlier the age of identification and management of the developmental delay, the better the outcome. The attainment of the mature syllable is considered to be a critical measure of babbling competency. This single case study aimed to determine whether the formedness of the syllable in babbling would be affected by the cleft lip repaired prior to the onset of meaningful speech. Three samples of babbling in a naturalistic environment were video-recorded. Data was analysed following the principles of infraphonology, employing a perceptually-based method. A profile of infraphonological features was obtained. Results showed that the development of the mature syllable was attained. The results support the theories that babbling is a robust phenomenon. Clinical and research implications are discussed.
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4/79. technology applications in intervention for preschool-age children with language disorders.

    Preschool-age children are capable of using computers and benefiting from developmentally appropriate software. Computer technology has been used successfully in therapy for young children with speech and language disorders; however, the clinician is a crucial factor in such success. Clinicians choose communication goals and appropriate software, plan precomputer activities, provide appropriate models and opportunities during the computer activity, and provide postcomputer activities that ensure the generalization of new skills. In this article, we discuss and illustrate the characteristics of developmentally appropriate computer-based activities and the role of clinicians in planning and implementing these activities for young children.
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5/79. Auditory neuropathy and a mitochondrial disorder in a child: case study.

    A child was referred for an audiologic evaluation, to include auditory brainstem evoked response testing, due to inconsistent responses to sound and delayed speech and language development. Results were characteristic of auditory neuropathy. In view of subsequent decline in motor function, a genetics evaluation was conducted, revealing a mitochondrial disorder. A brief overview of mitochondrial genetics in association with hearing loss is presented. The patient's audiologic profile is described and the implications for management are discussed.
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6/79. language development and assessment in children with human immunodeficiency virus: 3 to 6 years.

    Young children infected or exposed, or both to the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) present with a variety of speech, language, and communication problems. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the impact that hiv has on young children from 3 to 6 years of age. Issues concerning medically related problems are discussed, along with assessment criteria and descriptions of communication disorders among hiv-infected and -exposed children.
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7/79. Worster-Drought and congenital perisylvian syndromes-a continuum?

    A 5-year-old female was evaluated because of severe speech and expressive language delay. On examination, she could hardly speak and communicated through gestures. She manifested severe dysarthria and difficulty in protruding and moving her tongue laterally. She lacked coordination of the swallowing process, with drooling and an increased mental reflex. Her cognitive development was normal, and no associated neurologic dysfunction of the limbs was noted. On follow-up, the child experienced two episodes of seizures at 6 years of age. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated perisylvian and frontal polymicrogyria. Clinical and radiologic findings demonstrated a similarity and continuum between congenital suprabulbar paresis (Worster-Drought syndrome) and perisylvian syndrome.
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8/79. Disordered recognition of facial identity and emotions in three Asperger type autists.

    In this report we aim to explore severe deficits in facial affect recognition in three boys all of whom meet the criteria of Asperger's syndrome (AS), as well as overt prosopagnosia in one (B) and covert prosopagnosia in the remaining two (C and D). Subject B, with a familially-based talent of being highly gifted in physics and mathematics, showed no interest in people, a quasi complete lack of comprehension of emotions, and very poor emotional reactivity. The marked neuropsychological deficits were a moderate prosopagnosia and severely disordered recognition of facial emotions, gender and age. Expressive facial emotion, whole body psychomotor expression and speech prosody were quasi absent as well. In all three boys these facial processing deficits were more or less isolated, and general visuospatial functions, attention, formal language and scholastic performances were normal or even highly developed with the exception of deficient gestalt perception in B. We consider the deficient facial emotion perception as an important pathogenetic symptom for the autistic behaviour in the three boys. prosopagnosia, the absent facial and bodily expression, and speech prosody were important but varying co-morbid disorders. The total clinical picture of non-verbal disordered communication is a complex of predominantly bilateral and/or right hemisphere cortical deficits. Moreover, in B, insensitivity to pain, smells, noises and internal bodily feelings suggested a more general emotional anaesthesia and/or a deficient means of expression. It is possible that a limbic component might be involved, thus making affective appreciation also deficient.
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keywords = speech, perception
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9/79. Influence of otitis media on hearing and development.

    otitis media affects nearly every child at some time; many children have mild-to-moderate hearing losses for prolonged periods. The effects of these losses on language and educational development may be significant; possible mechanisms are discussed. Especially in suboptimal listening situations, speech perception may be impaired by even a mild hearing loss. Patterns of imperception are predicted by comparison of composite audiometric data from children with middle ear effusions with speech power data, and by analysis of sound pressure waveforms of speech filtered to simulate the typical hearing loss of these patients. A new method of analysis of brain stem evoked responses, yielding response components attributable to binaural interaction, is reported. This and other evoked response techniques may be able to identify objective changes in auditory nervous system function attributable to relative sensory deprivation during development. Finally, directions for further research in this area are discussed.
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ranking = 3.0060532142889
keywords = speech, perception
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10/79. The use of a digital voice output device to facilitate language development in a child with developmental apraxia of speech: a case study.

    PURPOSE: The study aimed at describing the language and communication abilities of a child diagnosed with Developmental Apraxia of Speech (DAS), who used a Macaw Digital voice output device. METHOD: This case study describes the training of a mother in the use of a Macaw digital voice output device to give her child with DAS access to higher levels of language functioning. It also provides longitudinal information pertaining to the child's school progress in the three years following the implementation of the device. RESULTS: Results indicate that the use of a digital device is useful in facilitating communication and language development in a young child with DAS. Specific evidence of an increase in the cognitive complexity of questions directed at the child is provided, as well as an increase in the number of questions directed to the child. Regarding the child's responses, it was noted that appropriate answers increased, as did the number of communication modalities and communication attempts. Longitudinal data indicates that the child was able to maintain these positive impacts. CONCLUSIONS: Digital voice output devices can be used as a method to facilitate higher cognitive functioning and has various positive impacts on the functioning of a child with DAS. These devices need to be considered as a tool to facilitate the development of communication and speech development for this population.
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