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1/8. speech patterns in Kabuki make-up syndrome: a case report.

    The case of a girl aged 3 years and 8 months with Kabuki make-up syndrome is reported. At presentation, she had normal cognitive functioning, and she also had a history of otitis media, a submucous cleft palate, and some hypotonia. Language testing showed normal receptive skills and good expressive vocabulary but poor morphosyntactic abilities. speech analysis showed that she was capable of producing most of the sounds of her native language but demonstrated high variability in production of the sounds. In addition, she inconsistently simplified words by application of several phonologic processes. Possible explanations for the communication problems demonstrated are discussed.
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2/8. A developmental phonological short-term memory deficit: a case study.

    A developmental case of phonological short-term memory deficit was studied in a highly educated subject. The subject, BS, who had obtained a Ph.D. in molecular biology, demonstrated striking deficits on some short-term memory tasks, particularly for auditorily presented nonword lists. With visual presentation and with meaningful words, he often scored at a normal level. The results indicate a deficit in retaining phonological information but an ability to use visual, lexical, and semantic information to boost recall. Despite this phonological short-term memory deficit, BS scored at a normal level on a syntactic comprehension test and on reading of nonwords. He was impaired, however, on repeated list learning, learning of foreign vocabulary, and transcribing dictated materials. The implications of these results for models of short-term memory and the uses of phonological retention in cognitive processing are discussed.
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3/8. Frozen phonology thawed: the analysis and remediation of a developmental disorder of real word phonology.

    A 5-year-old boy presented with very deviant phonological production, as well as some delay in acquisition of vocabulary for comprehension. Investigations showed that, in contrast to his very limited phonological system in word production and naming, he was able to repeat a variety of non-words with reasonable accuracy using a variety of syllable structures. A period of therapy aimed at improving his phonological segmentation skills resulted in dramatic improvement in real word production to the same level that he showed with non-words. This improvement was specific to the domain of treatment--real word phonology--demonstrating that the effects were a result of the therapy regimen. The reasons for this dissociation between the phonology of real words and non-words are discussed. It is concluded that the child's pattern of performance is incompatible with theories which assume that a single phonological representation is used both for word recognition and for output. His deficit appears to lie in a failure to update the underlying phonological representations used to drive spoken output as his phonological abilities develop--his lexical phonology was 'frozen'.
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4/8. Developmental amnesia: a new pattern of dissociation with intact episodic memory.

    A case of developmental amnesia is reported for a child, CL, of normal intelligence, who has intact episodic memory but impaired semantic memory for both semantic knowledge of facts and semantic knowledge of words, including general world knowledge, knowledge of word meanings and superordinate knowledge of words. In contrast to the deficits in semantic memory, there are no impairments in episodic memory for verbal or visual material, assessed by recall or recognition. Lexical decision was also intact, indicating impairment in semantic knowledge of vocabulary rather than absence of lexical representations. The case forms a double dissociation to the cases of Vargha-Khadem et al. [science 277 (1997) 376; Episodic memory: new directions in research (2002) 153]; Gadian et al. [brain 123 (2000) 499] for whom semantic memory was intact but episodic memory was impaired. This double dissociation suggests that semantic memory and episodic memory have the capacity to develop separately and supports models of modularity within memory development and a functional architecture for the developmental disorders within which there is residual normality rather than pervasive abnormality. knowledge of arithmetical facts is also spared for CL, consistent with adult studies arguing for numeracy knowledge distinct from other semantics. reading was characterised by difficulty with irregular words and homophones but intact reading of nonwords. CL has surface dyslexia with poor lexico-semantic reading skills but good phonological reading skills. The case was identified following screening from a population of normal schoolchildren suggesting that developmental amnesias may be more pervasive than has been recognised previously.
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5/8. The language of dissociation.

    Three case studies of inner-city elementary school children illustrate the connection between speech-language disorders and dissociative disorders in children who have known or suspected trauma histories. The role of speech language pathologists in identifying and responding to dissociative symptoms in children is explored. Lack of adequate training concerning the impact of trauma and scarce literature on the communication profiles of dissociative children contributes and greatly impacts the diagnosis, referral, and treatment of these children. The case studies demonstrate how unusual speech and language symptoms and awareness of dissociative features may aid in identifying trauma-related problems and instituting effective treatment. Grounding techniques and specific language interventions can assist children in acquiring the vocabulary needed for communicating both their daily experiences and traumatic histories. The nature of the relationship between dissociation and communication disorders is explored, and the importance of future research, interdisciplinary collaboration, and trauma training in the speech-language curriculum is emphasized.
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6/8. Assessing phonology in young children.

    We have presented a discussion of three important concepts regarding early phonological assessment. The first is that the child's language level must be considered in collecting and analyzing a sample and in interpreting the results. For a child with age-level language abilities, the sample should consist of both a single-word test and a running speech sample; both independent and relational analyses are appropriate. For a child with delayed expressive language and a small productive vocabulary, a sample comprised of spontaneous productions is more appropriate. In this case, the sample should be analyzed in terms of sound classes and syllable and word shapes that occur; a phonological process analysis is inappropriate. Lexical selection patterns should be noted. The results of the analyses should be interpreted in view of the expectations for the child's language level. A child with a normally developing language system is expected to have more advanced phonology than a child of the same age with delayed language. Thus, a child with a large vocabulary and word combinations is expected to have an expanding phonological system, with a full range of sound classes and syllable and word shapes. If a child is delayed in language and is still within the first 50-word stage, the expectation is that the phonological system will be more limited. Critical features for the phonology of early productive vocabulary have been identified. Lack of one or more of these features is indicative of atypical phonological development at any age and language level. The second concept is that the phonological system as a whole must be considered. In particular, the analyses and expectations should be based on the presence or absence of sound classes and syllable shapes rather than on sounds per se. Lack of an entire class or syllable structure would be cause for concern; lack of a particular sound, even though it has been shown to be acquired early, would not be. Thus, lack of the entire fricative class at 36 months would be of concern, whereas errors on /f/, which according to Prather et al., 1975, is mastered by this age, would not be. The third important concept emerges from the case studies; both studies demonstrate that longitudinal assessment is necessary to document changing profiles over the course of development. A child such as David, who has a normal-but-delayed profile in language and phonology at one age, may subsequently exhibit atypical patterns as phonology and language dissociate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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7/8. An operant procedure for improving vocabulary definition performances in developmentally delayed children.

    This report describes a training program in which operant procedures were used to improve the identification and definition of selected vocabulary words in three developmentally delayed children. Generalization from the training words was well established, as determined by responses to untrained vocabulary performance words. The results of this procedure suggest its application with other developmentally delayed children.
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keywords = vocabulary
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8/8. A developmental deficit in short-term phonological memory: implications for language and reading.

    QU, an eight-year-old boy, was identified from a large scale normative study on the basis of his greatly reduced digit span, combined with normal long-term memory and non-verbal intelligence. Further investigation indicated that his visual STM was normal, but that he was clearly impaired on two verbal STM tests, nonword repetition, and memory span for words. His span showed clear effects of phonological similarity and word-length, suggesting qualitatively normal functioning of the phonological loop component of working memory, despite a quantitative impairment in level of performance. This pattern resembles that found in an earlier study of children with a specific language disorder. We tested QU on measures of vocabulary, syntax, and reading, and found him to be substantially below the age norms on all three. The implications of these findings are discussed for the role of the phonological loop in language development.
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