Cases reported "Language Disorders"

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1/34. Auditory neuropathy: case study with hyperbilirubinemia.

    Auditory neuropathy (AN) has been described in the literature as presenting with a combination of audiometric findings that include elevated behavioral audiometric thresholds, auditory brainstem response findings that are not consistent with audiometric findings, poor speech recognition, and present otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and/or cochlear microphonics. Since the availability of clinical OAE testing, AN has come to be identified with increasing frequency; however, incidence and prevalence figures are unavailable. There is a great deal of discussion about the accurate diagnosis of AN, its characteristics, and its treatment. Some of this discussion is occurring on the internet and over the telephones. The need to continue to provide information in accessible peer-reviewed journals is paramount. Following a review of the literature, a case study is presented of a boy who was diagnosed with AN as a newborn. He experienced hyperbilirubinemia and other neonatal health complications. His educational intervention was managed elsewhere until recently. Information is presented about the progression of the case over a 5-year period that includes audiologic data and communication development results.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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2/34. Support for linkage of autism and specific language impairment to 7q3 from two chromosome rearrangements involving band 7q31.

    Childhood autism is characterised by impairments in communication and reciprocal social interaction together with restricted/stereotyped interests, which are evident before 3 years of age. Specific developmental disorders of speech and language (SDDSL) are characterised by impairment in the development of expressive and/or receptive language skills which is not associated with intellectual, sensory, physical, or neurological impairment. family and twin studies indicate a substantial genetic component in the aetiology of both disorders. They also reveal increased rates of SDDSL in relatives of autistic individuals, suggesting that this phenotype can represent one manifestation of the genetic liability for autism. Modelling of the recurrence risk for autism and milder phenotypes, such as SDDSL, suggest that three or four epistatic loci may be aetiologically involved. A recently published linkage study of an exceptional family with an apparently dominantly inherited SDDSL implicated chromosome band 7q31 as the site of the putative susceptibility locus (SPCH1). This region of chromosome 7 also shows strong linkage in multiplex families with autism. We present two individuals (one has autism, the other SDDSL) with different, apparently balanced chromosome rearrangements involving a breakpoint at 7q31.3. fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used to localise the breakpoints to an approximately 1 cM interval between CFTR and D7S643. Our findings may be of interest and relevance to the genetic aetiology of autism, and helpful in the search for susceptibility loci for SDDSL and autism. Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet. ) 96:228-234, 2000.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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3/34. speech recognition training for enhancing written language generation by a traumatic brain injury survivor.

    Impairments in motor functioning, language processing, and cognitive status may impact the written language performance of traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors. One strategy to minimize the impact of these impairments is to use a speech recognition system. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of mild dysarthria and mild cognitive-communication deficits secondary to TBI on a 19-year-old survivor's mastery and use of such a system-specifically, Dragon Naturally Speaking. Data included the % of the participant's words accurately perceived by the system over time, the participant's accuracy over time in using commands for navigation and error correction, and quantitative and qualitative changes in the participant's written texts generated with and without the use of the speech recognition system. Results showed that Dragon NaturallySpeaking was approximately 80% accurate in perceiving words spoken by the participant, and the participant quickly and easily mastered all navigation and error correction commands presented. Quantitatively, the participant produced a greater amount of text using traditional word processing and a standard keyboard than using the speech recognition system. Minimal qualitative differences appeared between writing samples. Discussion of factors that may have contributed to the obtained results and that may affect the generalization of the findings to other TBI survivors is provided.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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4/34. Challenges and opportunities for speech and language therapists in secondary schools.

    Language and communication difficulties experienced by secondary school students are outlined. The challenges that the secondary school environment presents for both children and speech and language therapy services are discussed. Two case studies illustrate how speech and language therapists (SLTs) working for the Newham education Authority Language and communication Support Service support students in their secondary schools.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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5/34. Clinical diagnostic and intervention studies of children with semantic-pragmatic language disorder.

    The diagnosis of semantic-pragmatic language disorder (SPLD) has been the subject of a number of research studies over the last two decades. classification and diagnostic debates, while illuminating, have done little to develop tools to improve services to these children. In this paper, two children whose communication difficulties are suggestive of an SPLD diagnosis but who have differing profiles are studied. Using existing models of psycholinguistics and pragmatics to guide assessment and intervention, the diversity of language and social communicative behaviours that are covered by the label SPLD are exemplified. Consideration is given to whether the term SPLD is appropriate for both children or whether Bishop's revision of the diagnosis to 'pragmatic language impairment' might be more useful. methods of intervention and evaluation for semantic and pragmatic deficits in these two cases are described. It is argued that existing tools can enable accurate explanation and modelling of the communication of children with SPLD and that there is a role for intervention studies in helping to refine those tools, to improve therapies and to understand the nature of the condition more fully.
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ranking = 2
keywords = communication
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6/34. Replacing prelinguistic behaviors with functional communication.

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a teacher-implemented intervention package designed to replace prelinguistic behaviors with functional communication. Four young children with autism participated in a multiple-probe design across three communicative functions. Initially, three existing communication functions were selected for each child. Next, the existing prelinguistic behaviors that the children used to achieve these functions were identified. Replacement forms that were considered more recognizable and symbolic were defined to achieve these same functions. After a baseline phase, teachers received inservice training, consultation, and feedback on how to encourage, acknowledge, and respond to the replacement forms. During intervention, the replacement forms increased and prelinguistic behaviors decreased in most cases. The results suggested that the teacher-implemented intervention was effective in replacing prelinguistic behaviors with alternative forms of functional communication.
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ranking = 7
keywords = communication
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7/34. Postlingual collapse of language and its recovery after cochlear implantation.

    A 6-year-old boy lost his normally-developed language ability within 2 months after bilateral sudden peripheral deafness. The boy became non-communicative with others, restless with frequent meaningless bursts of shouts (communication skills equivalent to 9-11 months of language development: a rapid breakdown of language). Since conservative methods were ineffective, cochlear implantation was performed. A surprising success was observed: he regained the language retracing the normal developmental stages and caught up with his contemporaries in 2 years. Behavioral improvement paralleled his language development. This case (1) provides insights into the brain function with respect to language acquisition, in relation to the plasticity during the 'critical period' of language learning, (2) reveals the close relationship between language development and behavior, and (3) suggests the predominance of auditory stimulation in learning language.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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8/34. Grammar and lexicon in facilitated communication: a linguistic authorship analysis of a Finnish case.

    This case study adds a new dimension to the discourse on the authorship issue in facilitated communication. The linguistic structure produced by a young Finnish man with severe cerebral palsy was examined. Data are based on transcripts he produced from 1993 until 1996 after facilitated communication had been introduced to him. In the data analysis, as explicit criteria for his idiosyncrasies, we used patterns typical of children acquiring Finnish as their first language and those found in normal slips of the tongue, acquired aphasia, and specific language impairment. Based on the analysis (i.e. the idiosyncrasy and agrammaticality of word-forms and sentences), we strongly suggest that his output can hardly be a product of any other speaker of Finnish, including that of his facilitators.
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ranking = 6
keywords = communication
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9/34. Narrative and procedural discourse production by severely aphasic patients.

    Five cbronically aphasic subjects were trained on a computerized iconographic communication system (C-VIC). Their performance in producing single sentences scripts. and narratives was assessed using both spoken English and C-VIC. The requisite vocabulary necessary and the narrative complexity of the target productions were controlled. Subject performance using C-VIC indicates that the ability to construct discourse at the macrostructural level is largely intact. Despite significant improvements in spoken production after C-VIC training, especially at the single sentence level, the subjects' spoken discourse remains severely impaired by their failures at the microlinguistic level. These results point to the limits of currently available approaches to the remediation of aphasia and suggest avenues for future research.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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10/34. Training and generalization of expressive syntax in nonfluent aphasia.

    Generalization of treatment effects remains a consistent goal of clinicians who treat aphasic adults. Specifically, various types of stimulus/response generalization designs are available, depending on the level of generalization desired. We have reviewed training matrices designed to elicit gestural subject-plus-verb targets and treatment studies designed to answer more global questions regarding treatment efficacy. As Kearns (1989) so eloquently states, "clinical accountability cannot, in fact, be fully achieved without documentation of communication skills trained in the clinic generalized to other settings and situations." Although the studies cited and data reviewed in this article did not meet this standard specifically, an attempt was made to provide a brief prelude to the data now emerging in the aphasiology literature. Additionally, with an increasing data base in the literature specific to generalization, more efficacious treatment paradigms will be made available. Clinicians treating aphasic adults thus should have the opportunity to choose the treatments shown to be most effective for a specific type and severity of aphasia.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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