Cases reported "Laron Syndrome"

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1/4. growth hormone insensitivity resulting from post-GH receptor defects.

    Biochemical analysis indicates that the STAT-5b mutation affects signaling by both growth hormone (GH) and gamma-interferon. A patient with such a mutation thus manifests two new clinical disorders: (1) growth hormone insensitivity (GHI), which results from a post-receptor defect in GH signaling and (2) a new form of primary immunodeficiency. Given that the GH receptor is a member of the hematopoietin-receptor family, it seems reasonable to predict that additional cases of defects in GH signaling will be identified. The predicted phenotype would be GHI combined with defects in the immune system. ( info)

2/4. Novel growth hormone receptor mutation in a Chinese patient with laron syndrome.

    laron syndrome, growth hormone (GH) insensitivity syndrome, caused by a mutation of the GH receptor (GHR) gene, is extremely rare in the Chinese population. We report a Chinese girl diagnosed with laron syndrome at age 1.9 years with height -4.9 SDS, basal GH 344 mIU/ml, IGF-I <12 ng/ml, IGFBP-3 <0.2 mg/ml, and undetectable GHBP. A novel mutation of the GHR, not previously described, was identified at the donor splice site of intron 6. ( info)

3/4. Effects of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I therapy in patients with gene defects in the GH axis.

    We report on four patients (3 F) who were diagnosed as having either a 6.7 kb GH1 gene deletion, a GH1 signalling peptide mutation, or a GH receptor mutation, with particular regard to treatment modalities (GH, rhIGF-I) and final height. patients with GH1 gene defects developed anti-GH antibodies (GH-Ab) following GH treatment. Surprisingly, growth response to GH was unrestricted in one girl, who reached a final height within her target height range, whereas her cousin with the identical genetic defect responded far less favourably. Variability in the growth inhibiting potency of GH-Ab may therefore depend on genetic disposition, specific epitopes, or induction of immunological tolerance. Growth response during rhIGF-I treatment carried out in three of the patients was moderate, but pubertal development and bone age acceleration occurred in the two patients treated at pubertal age. GH resistance, either caused by GH-Ab or GH receptor mutations, is still difficult to treat and results in a heterogeneous outcome. ( info)

4/4. Characterization of immunodeficiency in a patient with growth hormone insensitivity secondary to a novel STAT5b gene mutation.

    STAT5 proteins are components of the common growth hormone and interleukin 2 family of cytokines' signaling pathway. Mutations in the STAT5b gene, described in 2 patients, lead to growth hormone insensitivity that resembles laron syndrome. Clinical immunodeficiency was also present, although immunologic defects have not been well characterized thus far. Here we describe a 16-year-old girl who suffered generalized eczema and recurrent infections of the skin and respiratory tract since birth. She also suffered severe chronic lung disease and multiple episodes of herpetic keratitis. Clinical features of congenital growth hormone deficiency were observed, such as persistently low growth rate, severely delayed bone age, and postnatal growth failure resulting from growth hormone resistance. This combined phenotype of growth hormone insensitivity and immunodeficiency was attributable to a homozygous C-->T transition that resulted in a nonsense mutation at codon 152 in exon 5 of the STAT5b gene. This novel mutation determined a complete absence of protein expression. The main immunologic findings were moderate T-cell lymphopenia (1274/mm3), normal CD4/CD8 ratio, and very low numbers of natural killer (18/mm3) and gammadelta T (5/mm3) cells. T cells presented a chronically hyperactivated phenotype. in vitro T-cell proliferation and interleukin 2 signaling were impaired. CD4 and CD25 regulatory T cells were significantly diminished, and they probably contributed to the signs of homeostatic mechanism deregulation found in this patient. This new case, in accordance with 2 previously reported cases, definitely demonstrates the significant role of the STAT5b protein in mediating growth hormone actions. Furthermore, the main immunologic findings bring about an explanation for the clinical immunodeficiency features and reveal for the first time the relevant role of STAT5b as a key protein for T-cell functions in humans. ( info)

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