Cases reported "Laryngeal Neoplasms"

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1/31. Embryonal "Botryoid" rhabdomyosarcoma of the larynx: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of two cases.

    Two cases of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the larynx are reported. The tumors occurred in a 16-year-old boy and in a 66-year-old man. They manifested clinically with nonspecific symptoms, including voice hoarseness and sense of throat fullness. Treatment consisted of total and partial laryngectomy, respectively. Grossly, both lesions had an exophytic growth pattern and microscopically featured a proliferation of small round to oval cells. Cell cytoplasms were occasionally stainable and fibrillary. Quite often, tumor cellularity was denser beneath the covering mucosa, recalling a "cambium layer" pattern. Tumor cells immunoreacted for desmin, actins, myoglobin, and sarcomeric actin; no immunostaining was noted for epithelial markers. No further antitumoral treatment was administered after surgery. There has been no recurrence of tumor at 2 and 10 years, respectively. Based on our series and the available literature, it seems that rhabdomyosarcoma of the larynx pursues a less-aggressive course than that seen in the homonimic juvenile or adult soft tissue lesion. Surgery alone appears to be a valid treatment option, especially when a polypoid, or "botryoid" gross pattern, coupled with the embryonal small cell histotype is encountered. In light of these findings, it is suggested that botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma of the larynx may deserve a specific consideration among the various laryngeal mesenchymal malignancies.
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keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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2/31. Small bowel perforation caused by metastasis from an extra-abdominal malignancy: report of three cases.

    Small bowel perforation is rarely caused by metastasis from an extra-abdominal malignancy. This report describes three cases of small bowel perforation that occurred secondary to a metastatic tumor. The first case involved a 72-year-old man with malignant lymphoma of the larynx that had been treated with chemo- and radiation therapy; the second involved a 70-year-old man with rhabdomyosarcoma of the mediastinum that had been treated with radiation therapy; and the third involved a 41-year-old man with lung carcinoma that had been treated with surgery 10 months prior to perforation. Each patient presented with acute abdominal pain, had X-ray findings of free air in the abdomen, and underwent limited emergency surgery. Wedge resection and closure of the ileum was performed for the first patient and partial bowel resection with the creation of an intestinal stoma was performed for the second and third patients. In each case, the histologic findings of the resected specimens were consistent with the extra-abdominal primary tumors. Although the patients recovered sufficiently to begin eating and moving about, all three died of cancer or cancer-related complications within 45 days of surgery. We conclude that surgeons should be aware of the poor prognosis of such patients and perform only the minimal surgery required.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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3/31. Laryngeal rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Laryngeal rhabdomyosarcomas are very rare, extremely malignant tumors. Approximately half of the reported cases have occurred in children. diagnosis may be difficult, and adequate biopsy material is crucial in the identification of these lesions. Unil recently, rhabdomyosarcomas carried a dismal prognosis; however, combined treatment with surgery, irradiation, and triple chemotherapy appears to have improved the outlook. This should probably be the treatment for laryngeal rhabdomyosarcomas, and was successfully used in the case reported herein.
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keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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4/31. Spindle-cell tumours of the larynx: diagnostic pitfalls. A case report and review of the literature.

    Malignant laryngeal tumours with spindle-cell morphology are relatively rare. Differential diagnosis of spindle-cell carcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, malignant melanoma and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour may be particularly difficult. Ambiguous and indeterminate diagnoses are also possible after immunohistochemical investigations of the expression of specific tumour markers but electron microscopic observations help to clarify most of these diagnoses.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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5/31. Laryngeal embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma: a case of cervical metastases 13 years after treatment and a 25-year review of existing literature.

    rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in childhood, the majority of which are of the embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ER) variety. Present day treatment protocols involve a combination of aggressive surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the larynx is rare and unlike ER of other regions exhibits excellent response to multimodality treatment without the need for extensive surgery. We report a case of cervical metastases in a 29-year-old man 13 years after treatment of his laryngeal ER. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of late neck metastases in ER of the larynx and the second reported case of delayed presentation of recurrent disease. A 25-year review of all published reports of ER of the larynx was conducted that highlights the move toward organ preservation with the multimodality treatment protocols. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the larynx is highly responsive to combination chemoradiotherapy, allowing for excellent cure rates without the need for extensive surgery. Late relapses warrant long-term follow-up.
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keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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6/31. Adenoid squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx: an uncommon histological variant of squamous cell carcinoma.

    Adenoid squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) or acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is a well-recognized variant of squamous cell carcinoma. ASCC commonly occurs in the sun-exposed areas of the skin and has only rarely been observed in mucosal sites. We report a case of ASCC in the larynx of a 75-year-old man with a history of odynophagia and dysphonia of 3 months' duration that presented as an exophytic lesion on the right vocal cord. biopsy was performed and the histological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma. Treatment consisted of total laryngectomy and radical neck dissection. Microscopically, the tumor showed a prominent alveolar pattern with cystic degeneration of the neoplastic epithelium and formation of pseudoglandular structures. In the lumina there were acantholytic cells. Transition areas from conventional squamous cell carcinoma to adenoid pattern were found. To the best of our knowledge this is only the third case of ASCC reported in the larynx. We reviewed the nine mucosal ASCCs of the upper aerodigestive tract reported. The assertion that these tumors are associated with an aggressive behavior and poor prognosis cannot be estimated in this review as the number of cases is small and the tumors are located in different places.
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ranking = 0.00020765823375534
keywords = alveolar
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7/31. rhabdomyosarcoma of the larynx in children: a series of five patients treated in the Institut Gustave Roussy (Villejuif, france).

    rhabdomyosarcoma of the larynx is a malignant disease rarely seen in children. We present five cases (3 males, 2 females) observed among 126 patients with rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck (excluding the orbit) treated in the Institut Gustave-Roussy between 1955 and 1981. The patients were aged between 5 1/2 years and 13 1/2 years at the time of diagnosis. The presenting symptoms were dysphonia and/or dyspnea; tracheotomy was required in two cases. All five patients received chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, cyclophosphamide, actinomycin D procarbazine or doxorubicin. Four patients also received radiotherapy (45 Gy during 5 weeks). laryngectomy was not performed. Treatment sequelae included regional hypoplasia, huskiness, and subclinical thyroid insufficiency; two patients developed a benign thyroid adenoma. One patient presented a bilateral carotid stenosis subsequent to radiotherapy performed on "wide fields" portal designed to provided prophylactic treatment on uninvolved lymph nodes. All the patients are alive and relapse-free with a follow-up of between 13 and 17 years. This small series of RMS of the larynx shows that patients can be cured without laryngectomy, although long-term sequelae associated with radiotherapy are observed.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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8/31. Laryngeal botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma in an adult. Report of a case with electron microscopic study.

    light and electron microscopic studies of botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma of the larynx in an adult are presented. Differences in cellular composition of the central and peripheral regions of the tumor are described. The ultrastructure of the rhabdomyoblasts is discussed on the basis of criteria recently described. The findings support the hypothesis that botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma is a special subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma with low grade malignancy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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9/31. pulmonary edema as a complication of acute airway obstruction.

    Acute fulminating pulmonary edema developed in three patients after acute airway obstruction secondary to tumor, strangulation, and interrupted hanging (one case each). The common etiologic factor was vigorous inspiratory effort against a totally obstructed upper airway. Acute pulmonary edema followed the event in minutes to hours and required ventilatory assistance to maintain oxygenation. All patients eventually responded to fluid restriction, diuretics, and steroids. One case was complicated by aspiration of gastric contents following respiratory failure. To our knowledge, this condition is previously unreported in English literature. We presume that the pathogenesis is related to alveolar and capillary damage, induced by the severe negative pressure generated by attempting to inspire against the closed upper airway.
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ranking = 0.00020765823375534
keywords = alveolar
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10/31. Therapy of rhabdomyosarcoma of the larynx.

    A case of subglottic rhabdomyosarcoma in a 13-year-old boy is reported. Following partial conservative resection of the larynx with supplementary chemotherapy and without irradiation, the patient has had no functional impairment of the larynx and has shown no evidence of recurrence for more than 3 years.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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