Cases reported "Laryngitis"

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1/34. Upper airway obstruction.

    A large number of diseases may present with respiratory distress. In adults, upper airway obstruction (UAO) is relatively rare. Consequently, UAO may initially be overlooked in the differential diagnosis of the dyspneic patient. Because it may progress rapidly, delays or errors in diagnosis can be critical. During an eight-month period in one emergency department, seven adult patients with potentially life-threatening diseases of the upper airway were seen. To reacquaint physicians with the syndrome of mechanical obstruction of large airways, several illustrative cases are presented and the syndrome is discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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2/34. Aspergillus laryngotracheobronchial infection in a 6-year-old girl following bone marrow transplantation.

    Localised fungal infection of the larynx and tracheobronchial tree is extremely uncommon. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl with acute lymphocytic leukaemia, who developed symptoms of upper airways obstruction 6 months after a cord blood transplant. bronchoscopy showed a pale plaque lesion in the larynx and tracheobronchial tree. aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from a biopsy of the lesion. The patient was treated successfully with a prolonged course of amphotericin b and assessed with multiple surveillance bronchoscopies.
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ranking = 0.0038621070648028
keywords = obstruction
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3/34. Bag-mask ventilation as a temporizing measure in acute infectious upper-airway obstruction: does it really work?

    jaw-thrust and bag-mask ventilation usually provide adequate oxygenation in patients with acute infectious upper-airway obstruction (AIUAO). It is the treatment of choice for patients on the way to hospital or in an emergency department until definitive stabilization is achieved with available resources. We report three fatal case studies showing ineffective bag-mask ventilation in AIUAO that raise concerns over this treatment. Case 1 is a 4-year-old patient with epiglottitis who suffered complete obstruction during transport to the hospital. Case 2 is a 3-year-old patient with epiglottitis who suffered complete obstruction during transport to the hospital. Case 3 is a 3-year-old child with viral laryngotracheitis and respiratory arrest just after the admission. Should the approach of bag-mask ventilation in AIUAO change to ventilate patients in the prone position? This approach offers two advantages. First, gravity helps the epiglottis fall forward, reducing the airway obstructions. Second, if the patient vomits during ventilation, the vomit will fall to the floor. During bag-mask ventilation in patients with severe partial airway obstruction, ventilation pressure is high. Gastric inflation may occur and rapidly distend the stomach. This gastric distension interferes with ventilation by elevating the diaphragm, resulting in a decreased lung volume. Cricoid pressure could prevent gastric distension in these instances and should be recommended.
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ranking = 1.4023172642389
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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4/34. An unusual case of stridor after thyroidectomy.

    Twelve days after subtotal thyroidectomy, an air pocket developed in a patient's neck. The pressure in this pocket had gradually increased as small amounts of air, probably associated with coughing, came out of a tiny hole in the trachea to form a pneumocoele. This produced limited surgical emphysema, causing venous congestion and oedema of the soft tissues of the larynx, which in turn led to increasing airway obstruction. We believe that this is the first reported case of a pneumocoele that gradually increased in size, causing airway obstruction that was almost certainly due to secondary laryngeal oedema.
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ranking = 0.39845515717408
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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5/34. Tracheal sounds in upper airway obstruction.

    A boy with subglottic narrowing secondary to laryngotracheitis presented with noisy breathing. Acoustic measurements of tracheal sounds at standardized air flows correlated well with the clinical course and with spirometric assessments. This indicates the potential value of respiratory sound characterization in patients with upper airway obstruction.
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ranking = 0.9961378929352
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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6/34. Upper airway obstruction in association with perinatally acquired herpes simplex virus infection.

    Two cases of neonatal upper respiratory tract obstruction caused by herpes simplex virus are described. infection of the upper respiratory tract with this virus should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever and stridor during the neonatal period.
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ranking = 0.80077242141296
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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7/34. Acute infective airway obstruction associated with subglottic stenosis.

    Pre-existing subglottic stenosis in a 22-month-old child with laryngotracheobronchitis resulted in failure to intubate the trachea on the intensive therapy unit. tracheostomy was necessary in the operating theatre to secure the airway. The implications for safe management are discussed.
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ranking = 0.79691031434816
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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8/34. A child with nocturnal croup.

    The domiciliary management of a four-year-old with suspected croup is difficult. The differential diagnosis ranges from relatively benign viral illnesses to acute epiglottitis and even diphtheria. Complete obstruction can occur with little warning, and the social situation may further complicate arrangements. As it is not possible to admit every patient with such symptoms, clinical judgement is vitally important.
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ranking = 0.0038621070648028
keywords = obstruction
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9/34. Anesthetic and operative management of potential upper airway obstruction.

    Potential or actual supraglottic airway obstruction becomes critical when general anesthesia is begun. Four cases illustrated such obstruction, and the anesthetic and surgical management of each condition was critical. In carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx and in pharyngeal abscess, the unobstructed airway in the conscious patient became impossible to secure once general anesthesia was begun. Unappreciated pathological deformity prohibited endotracheal intubation, and anesthesia precipitated obstruction. In epiglottitis and peritonsillar abscess, the nature of the impending airway obstruction was appreciated, and the selection of a safe technique to secure the airway was made. Anesthetic and surgical management of potential supraglottic obstruction includes five options: (1) oral tracheal intubation by laryngoscopy while the patient is awake; (2) awake nasotracheal intubation; (3) inhalation induction by general anesthesia with intubation; (4) rapid induction with barbiturates and muscle relaxants with intubation; and (5) tracheostomy with local anesthesia.
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ranking = 1.2069517927166
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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10/34. epiglottitis in AIDS patients.

    adult epiglottitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has not been previously reported. A pale, floppy epiglottis with supraglottic edema, cervical lymphadenopathy, a normal to low white blood count without a shift to the left, and rapidly progressive airway obstruction characterize this entity. In this small series of patients, conservative medical management was not successful, and aggressive airway intervention with appropriate intravenous antibiotic therapy was necessary.
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ranking = 0.19922757858704
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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