Cases reported "Laryngitis"

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11/34. pulmonary edema due to partial upper airway obstruction in a child.

    The case of an 8-year-old boy is reported, who developed acute pulmonary edema associated with acute subglottic swelling and subsequent partial upper airway obstruction after extubation and recovery from anaesthesia. The main factors responsible for the formation of pulmonary edema presumably are a large subatmospheric transpulmonary pressure gradient and hypoxia leading to translocation of circulating blood volume into the pulmonary vasculature and fluid shift across the alveolar-capillary membrane. Application of oxygen and CPAP or PEEP plus diuretic therapy will promote rapid clearance of the pulmonary edema.
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ranking = 1
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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12/34. Acute airway obstruction in a seven-month-old infant with epiglottitis.

    A seven-month-old male infant with epiglottitis developed acute airway obstruction in the operating room during halothane induction. This case suggests that epiglottitis should be suspected in any child, regardless of age, who presents with stridor, respiratory distress, dysphagia, or "tripoding," and it reiterates the need for prompt airway management.
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ranking = 1
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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13/34. Approach to supraglottitis.

    In my experience, steroids have no use in the management of ACSOL once the airway is secured, and may actually prolong and complicate the infectious process. The main use of antibiotics is probably for preventing systemic complications such as pneumonia and meningitis. It is possible, however, that neither drug can alter the natural course of this disease and may just hasten its expected inconsequential resolution. The key to successful management of acute supraglottitis is early recognition and prompt provision of airway assistance when indicated. This potentially fatal disease occurs in adults as well as children. To my knowledge, most deaths occur after the patient arrives at the hospital, when there is hesitation and indecision about the need for airway intervention. Whenever signs of UAO appear, artificial airway should be provided promptly, regardless of the eventual diagnosis. Those physicians who try all means to avoid intubation or tracheotomy early in the process may be cautioned that complications from either procedures are just a risk, while airway obstruction in most cases of ACSOL is a certainty. Finally, the examiner assessing patients with possible obstructive laryngitis, supraglottic, or subglottic, should first and foremost decide whether an airway is needed and should defer all diagnostic guesswork and laboratory data processing until the airway is secured.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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14/34. Complication of acute epiglottitis.

    Acute airway obstruction secondary to supraglottic inflammation is a regional manifestation of epiglottitis in children. pneumonia, meningitis, cervical adenitis and septic shock are systemic manifestations which can complicate the course of acute epiglottitis. Prompt airway control and institution of appropriate high dose i.v. antibiotics are both important to continue to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with the regional and systemic manifestations of acute epiglottitis in children.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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15/34. Acute epiglottitis in adults. An eight-year experience in the state of rhode island.

    We retrospectively reviewed the medical records on all cases of acute epiglottitis in adults from each of the hospitals in rhode island and from the state medical examiner's office over an eight-year period (1975-1982). We found 56 cases--an annual incidence of 9.7 cases per million adults. A significant increase occurred in the last two study years. Indirect laryngoscopy proved to be more reliable in making a diagnosis than did x-ray films of the neck; all of 41 indirect examinations were performed without complications. Twenty-three percent (6 of 26) of patients in whom blood cultures had been obtained had bacteremia, all with Hemophilus influenzae. bacteremia was associated with a high risk of airway obstruction. Four patients died, all from acute airway obstruction, for a mortality rate of 7.1 percent--a rate significantly higher than the current rate among children. Two deaths occurred after admission, while the patients were being observed without an artificial airway. We conclude that the incidence of epiglottitis in adults is higher than previously believed and may be increasing. Fatal airway obstruction can occur without warning, indicating a need for early protection of the airway in adults as well as in children.
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ranking = 0.6
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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16/34. epiglottitis in immunocompromised patients.

    Modern medical oncology has made dramatic improvements in the prognosis of many malignancies. Many of the treatment regimens used by the chemotherapist have the potential to profoundly depress the immune system. At UCLA Medical Center, three patients developed epiglottitis secondary to the fungus candida albicans, while profoundly immunocompromised. All three had severe pain and odynophagia. The patients were all managed medically and none went on to airway obstruction. The natural history of this process is reviewed.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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17/34. A comparison of endotracheal intubation and tracheostomy in the management of acute epiglottitis in children in the tropics.

    In children, acute epiglottitis is rapidly fatal due to airway obstruction by swollen supraglottic structures, but the oedema is short-lived. Therefore, in many centres short-term endotracheal intubation has replaced tracheostomy as the method of choice for relieving the obstruction. We have tried both methods in 15 children over a period of three years under conditions of limited material and human resources. tracheostomy was found to be safer. It was concluded that it is better to have a live healthy child with a small scar in the neck than a dead child without a scar.
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ranking = 0.20387708076582
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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18/34. Acute epiglottitis in a 79-year-old man.

    A case of acute epiglottitis in a 79-year-old man is presented describing the airway and anaesthetic management. Early reports of adult epiglottitis advocated observation or tracheostomy for airway management. Recent reports stress early endotracheal intubation. Unlike the paediatric age group adults may present with differing degrees of airway obstruction, epiglottic abscess, and with a more diverse set of medical problems. This can make airway management more variable than in children. A discussion of airway management in adult epiglottitis is presented.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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19/34. Failure of intubation in acute inflammatory airway obstruction in childhood.

    At the present time, viral laryngotracheobronchitis, (LTB), and bacterial epiglottitis account for the majority of cases of acute infectious upper airway obstruction in children. This airway obstruction may become life-threatening and require relief either by tracheotomy or by nasotracheal intubation. Recently the trend has been away from tracheotomy and towards intubation. Three cases are reported in this paper, in which intubation by experienced anaesthetists proved impossible, and a life-saving tracheotomy was immediately performed by the otolaryngologist in attendance. It is recommended that an experienced otolaryngologist should always be present at the time of intubation, should it prove impossible, and the child require emergency tracheotomy to secure the airway.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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20/34. Acute epiglottitis in adults.

    Acute infectious epiglottitis, a serious life-threatening disease because of its potential for sudden upper airway obstruction, is most commonly seen in children, although it can occur in adults. Because acute epiglottitis is uncommon in adults, it is often misdiagnosed. Five cases are presented that demonstrate the clinical characteristics of adult epiglottitis. knowledge of the symptoms and signs of the disease will lead to early diagnosis and appropriate management, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality rates.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction
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