Cases reported "Laryngitis"

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1/9. role of esophageal pH recording in management of chronic laryngitis: an overview.

    Chronic laryngitis typically produces symptoms of frequent throat-clearing, soreness, decreased voice quality with use, nonproductive cough, globus sensation, and odynophagia. The endoscopic laryngeal examination usually demonstrates posterior glottic edema, erythema, and increased vascularity and nodularity. There is increasing support for the hypothesis that reflux of acidic gastric contents is often responsible for the symptoms and findings of chronic laryngitis. Prospective trials of acid suppression therapy demonstrate not only efficacy in symptom reduction, but also objective improvement in measurements of voice quality and mucosal erythema. Although traditionally considered the "gold standard" for diagnosis of reflux causing laryngitis, routine esophageal pH recording may result in false negatives in up to 50% of patients. This may confound the diagnosis of chronic laryngitis and delay treatment. Conversely, a positive study during comprehensive therapy may help identify patients who need additional treatment. A single distal probe is probably insufficient for evaluation of a supraesophageal disorder. Current recommendations for double-probe pH study in the evaluation of chronic laryngitis fall into 2 categories: 1) a double-probe pH study is indicated if there is ongoing moderate-to-severe laryngitis despite antireflux precautions and proton pump inhibitor treatment for at least 6 to 12 weeks; and 2) a double-probe pH study is indicated as a baseline measurement before Nissen or Toupet fundoplication. The pH study would also be indicated in patients who have symptoms after fundoplication. There is clearly much more work to be done on the technical issues of obtaining accurate objective data related to laryngeal acidification. In addition, although acid reflux appears to be causative in many cases of chronic laryngitis, further work is indicated to identify reliable testing methods that will predict treatment success.
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2/9. actinomycosis of the vocal cord: a case report.

    A 30-year-old Chinese lady was admitted for hoarseness of voice of one month's duration. Clinical examination revealed a granuloma of the left vocal cord while chest X-ray showed an opacity in the lower lobe of the right lung. The provisional clinical diagnosis was tuberculous laryngitis. A biopsy of the vocal cord lesion revealed inflamed tissue with actinomycotic colonies. Cultures and sputum smears did not reveal any tuberculous bacilli. The patient responded to a 6-week course of intravenous C-penicillin, regaining her voice on day 5 of commencement of antibiotics. A subsequent CT scan of the neck and thorax revealed multiple non-cavitating nodular lesions in both lung fields, felt to be indicative of resolving actinomycosis. She was discharged well after completion of treatment. It was felt that this is a case of primary actinomycosis of the vocal cord with probably secondary pulmonary actinomycosis.
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3/9. Immediate hypersensitivity type of occupational laryngitis in a welder exposed to welding fumes of stainless steel.

    BACKGROUND: Although upper respiratory symptoms have been reported to occur in welders, occupational laryngitis of immediate hypersensitivity type due to welding fumes of stainless steel has not been previously reported. methods: Occupational laryngitis was diagnosed based on the specific challenge test combined with the patient's history of occupational exposure and laryngeal symptoms. RESULTS: During the past few years, a 50-year-old man had started to experience laryngeal symptoms while welding stainless steel. The welding challenge test with stainless steel caused significant changes in the laryngeal status 30 min after challenge: increased erythema, edema, and hoarseness of the voice. The referent inhalation challenge test by welding mild steel was negative. CONCLUSION: The welding of stainless steel should be included in the etiological factors of occupational laryngitis of immediate hypersensitivity type.
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4/9. Recurring epiglottitis in an adult.

    We report a case of recurring epiglottitis in an adult. The patient presented with complaints of a sore throat and fever. The presence of a muffled voice led to radiologic and indirect laryngoscopic examination confirming the diagnosis. The patient responded promptly to glucocorticoids and parenteral antibiotics. Over the ensuing six months, he was readmitted to the hospital on three separate occasions with recurrent symptoms and findings of epiglottitis. On each occasion, he responded promptly to therapy. An exhaustive investigation failed to reveal a cause for this unique occurrence of recurring disease.
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5/9. Acute epiglottitis in adults.

    Acute epiglottitis in adults is a fulminant disease characterized by local cellulitis of supraglottic structures. Symptoms include sore throat, dysphagia, respiratory difficulty and muffled voice. Signs are pharyngitis, swollen and inflamed epiglottis, epiglottic abscess and/or cervical swelling. diagnosis is facilitated by an upright, lateral neck x-ray and indirect laryngoscopy. The mainstays of treatment are airway maintenance, antibiotics, steroids, hydration, cool mist, oxygen and supportive care.
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6/9. diagnosis and treatment of persistent dysphonia after laryngeal surgery: a retrospective analysis of 62 patients.

    Sixty-two patients with persistent or recurrent dysphonia after laryngeal surgery underwent interdisciplinary voice evaluation, laryngostroboscopy, and objective measurements of vocal function. The causes of persistent dysphonia were attributed to vocal fold scarring (n = 22), residual mass lesion (n = 8), residual inflammation (n = 13), recurrent mass (n = 4), and hyperfunctional voice disorder (n = 7). laryngoscopy often showed excessive ventricular compression and anterior-to-posterior laryngeal compression. Ventricular dysphonia was often a compensatory gesture in response to poorly mobile vocal fold membranes. stroboscopy was able to document a number of abnormalities which included abnormalities of laryngeal configuration, vibratory asymmetry, reduction of amplitude, and mucosal wave. Using a diversified approach consisting of medical therapy, voice therapy, and repeat surgery, better vocal function was able to be restored in the majority of patients. An interdisciplinary approach to the dysphonic patient after laryngeal surgery was most useful in defining the pathology and refining a treatment rehabilitation program.
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7/9. histoplasmosis of the larynx.

    INTRODUCTION: Laryngeal histoplasmosis was first described in 1952. Since then, fewer than 100 cases had been reported. This dimorphic fungus is endemic in the mississippi and ohio River Valleys. The yeast phase is responsible for human infection. methods: We report a 44-year-old woman who developed laryngitis. The markedly abnormal larynx, which could have been mistaken for papillomatosis, was biopsied, at which time the diagnosis of histoplasmosis was confirmed. Treatment with oral ketoconazole was instituted. RESULTS: Objective voice assessment showed abnormalities of maximum phonation time, speaking fundamental frequency, perturbation, percent voicing, mean flow rate, and spectral pattern. Subsequent to antifungal therapy, objective measures were improved. CONCLUSION: This represents the first case of laryngeal histoplasmosis in which response to therapy is documented by objective vocal assessment.
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8/9. Acoustic measurement of change in voice quality with treatment for chronic posterior laryngitis.

    Sixteen patients who had symptoms and signs of chronic posterior laryngitis were evaluated before, during, and after treatment with omeprazole and nocturnal antireflux precautions. Data were analyzed for patients who complained of some hoarseness, who had no smoking history, and who completed all of the voice recording protocol. The patients' voices were recorded before, during, and following treatment with omeprazole and nocturnal antireflux precautions. voice quality was analyzed by perceptual analysis, and acoustic signal data were measured for jitter, shimmer, and signal-to-noise ratio. Measures of jitter, shimmer, and signal-to-noise ratio changed significantly with treatment of posterior laryngitis (p < .01 for change in each of the measures). Acoustic measures showed some trend of deterioration with cessation of treatment, although the overall improvement in acoustic measures of voice quality was still statistically significant after treatment with omeprazole was discontinued. Although perceived abnormality of voice increased and decreased with the magnitude of measured perturbation of the acoustic signal for some patients, the perceptual assessments were not highly correlated with acoustic measures for individual patients, and the perceptual analysis group data did not show a significant change with time during treatment, in contrast to the significance of change in acoustic measures. The data demonstrate that acoustic measures of jitter, shimmer, and signal-to-noise ratio improve significantly with antisecretory and antireflux treatment of chronic posterior laryngitis, and that for individual patients, these are changes that are detected by trained listeners, but not at statistically high levels of confidence.
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9/9. Laryngeal inflammation mimicking laryngeal carcinoma.

    A case of severe inflammation with an exuberant granulation lesion of the larynx that mimicked laryngeal tumour is presented. A patient who was a chronic smoker, with a history of hoarse voice underwent multiple endoscopies and biopsies, confirmed histopathologically as acute and, subsequently, as chronic inflammation. The tumour-like tissue in the larynx responded dramatically to prolonged antibiotic treatment. We emphasize the importance of histological confirmation before embarking on removal of an essential organ or part of the body which could lead to physical or emotional scarring.
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