Cases reported "Laryngostenosis"

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1/16. Malignant laryngotracheal obstruction: a way to treat serial stenoses of the upper airways.

    BACKGROUND: Six patients known to have inoperable esophageal carcinoma presented with stridor due to both malignant tracheal stenosis (n = 6) and bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Two patients also had respiratory-digestive fistula. methods: Patency was restored by endotracheal stenting plus unilateral cordectomy. Four patients had immediate relief. Two patients required enlargement of the cord incision. One of them declined reoperation and underwent tracheotomy. RESULTS: Stent function was uneventful. There was no dislodgement or mucous impaction. fistula seal was complete. There was no aspiration through the new-shaped glottic orifice. Peak expiratory flow increased from 24.4% /- 9.7% predicted normal before to 40.5% /- 13.7% after the procedure, whereas the dyspnea score decreased from 74.2 /- 12.7 to 24.2 /- 14.0. CONCLUSIONS: Restoration of airway continuity in serial laryngotracheal stenoses using a combined approach is a feasible technique in end-stage cancer patients. It effectively relieves respiratory distress and ensures voice preservation. In addition, it may avoid the risks of tracheotomy.
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keywords = voice
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2/16. Concurrent glottic and tracheal stenoses: restoration of airway continuity in end-stage malignant disease.

    Six patients known to have inoperable esophageal carcinoma presented with stridor due to both malignant tracheal stenosis (with additional respiratory-digestive tract fistula in 2 patients) and bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Patency was restored by endotracheal stenting plus unilateral cordotomy. Four patients had immediate relief. Two patients required enlargement of the vocal cord incision. One of them declined reoperation and underwent tracheostomy. The stent function was uneventful, with no dislodgment or mucus impaction. The fistula seal was complete, with no aspiration through the newly shaped glottic orifice. The peak expiratory flow increased from 24.4% /- 9.7% of predicted normal before the procedure to 40.5% /- 13.7% after the procedure. Restoration of airway continuity in serial laryngotracheal stenoses by a combined approach is a feasible technique in end-stage cancer patients. It effectively relieves respiratory distress and ensures voice preservation. In addition, it may avoid the risks of tracheotomy.
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keywords = voice
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3/16. Laryngotracheal reconstruction of the congenital glotto-subglottic stenosis with autogenous thyroid cartilage interposition: a case report.

    Surgical correction of grade III glotto-subglottic stenosis in a two-month-old girl was illustrated in a staged manner. Firstly, a silicone keel was placed via anterior thyrotomy following a tracheotomy. Secondly, laryngotracheal reconstruction was performed by interposing an autogenous thyroid cartilage anteriorly between the edges of the longitudinally divided cricoid cartilage and the upper tracheal rings. A stent was maintained for two months. The glottis and subglottis appeared patent and healed following removal of the stent. A meaningful voice and rather comfortable respiration were observed during a 13-month follow-up. The use of thyroid cartilage autograft offers many advantages in laryngotracheal reconstruction with considerably less technical difficulty.
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keywords = voice
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4/16. Bilateral vocal fold posterior glottic/subglottic stenotic web resected with contact tip Nd-YAG laser.

    The standard treatment for respiratory failure remains endotracheal intubation, with periods of 22 or more days being commonplace. Posterior glottic stenotic web formation, from scarring in the posterior interarytenoid area, may occur after endotracheal intubation, thermal, corrosive, or direct surgical injury. A commonly used classification system for posterior glottic stenosis divides the occurrence into four types. Type I involves an interarytenoid scar band between the vocal folds that is anterior and separate from the posterior interarytenoid mucosa. Type II stenosis involves scarring of the mucosa or musculature of the posterior interarytenoid area. Types III and IV involve unilateral and bilateral cricoarytenoid joint fixation, respectively. Strobovideolaryngoscopy (SVL), rigid and flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy, electromyography (EMG), radiologic imaging of the neck, larynx, and trachea as well as pulmonary function tests, including flow volume loops, provide important objective measurements of upper airway obstruction. A representative case of a professional voice user who suffered a Type II posterior glottic stenosis is presented. The treatment utilized a specific contact-tip neodymium-yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG) laser delivery system to achieve precise cutting, vaporization, and coagulation simultaneously, returning tactile touch technique to the airway/voice surgeon. Completely successful restoration of voice and airway have been maintained for 2 1/2 years postoperatively.
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keywords = voice
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5/16. Vascularized hemitracheal autograft for laryngotracheal reconstruction: a new surgical technique based on the thyroid gland as a vascular carrier.

    BACKGROUND: The management of extensive laryngotracheal stenosis has been a challenge confronting head and neck surgeons for over a century. The key to the successful restoration of a stable airway is providing a cartilaginous infrastructure to provide support to withstand both the negative and positive lumenal pressures produced during normal respiration and deglutition. We introduce a novel technique for restoration of such defects. methods: The blood supply to the thyroid gland by way of the inferior thyroid artery and the superior thyroid artery and vein are mobilized for transfer. One half to two thirds of the circumference of the adjacent tracheal rings are mobilized on the basis of the requirements of the stenotic segment. This mucochondrial composite tracheal flap is advanced superiorly to the ipsilateral "laryngeal" region where insetting of the cartilage and the mucosa is performed. Primary reconstruction or, more likely, a staged repair of the secondary tracheal defect is performed. RESULTS: Three case reports are presented. The patients were successfully decannulated postoperatively, continue to have an adequate voice, and are tolerating a diet (3-27 months postreconstruction). CONCLUSION: A new surgical technique for reconstruction of benign laryngotracheal stenoses is introduced to restore phonatory capability and a stable airway. The composite thyroid-tracheal graft based on the inferior and superior thyroid arterial pedicles allows a single-staged, primary reconstruction of the hemilarynx with a well-vascularized composite thyrotracheal flap that allows resurfacing as well as replacement of the infrastructure of the glottis and subglottis. This technique would be an excellent method to restore the cricoid ring following partial resection for primary cartilaginous tumors.
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keywords = voice
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6/16. Glottic scar bands following intubation.

    We present two uncommon cases of abnormalities of the pediatric airway, which may present in the first instance to the anesthetist. Glottic scar bands are a result of intubation trauma and are a treatable cause of voice abnormalities and sometimes respiratory distress.
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keywords = voice
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7/16. Surgical treatment of laryngeal web with mucosa graft.

    Surgical treatment of laryngeal webbing varies with the extent and site of the web. An extensive one seems to be best treated by laryngofissure and skin or mucosa transplantation. Recent experiences with four cases of thick glottal webbing indicated that a mucosa graft was better for the voice result than a skin graft. For success in the airway and voice results, the salient points in surgery include 1) precise midline thyrotomy, 2) shaping of the vocal cord under fiberoptic control, and 3) mucosa grafting with the combined use of a pliable stent or fibrin glue for fixation.
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ranking = 2
keywords = voice
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8/16. Long term pathological sequelae of neonatal endotracheal intubation.

    In neonates, acquired subglottic stenosis (SGS) is the most serious long term complication of endotracheal intubation. In this case report, we describe the pathological changes in the larynx of a child who died two years after successful treatment, involving corrective surgery, for neonatally acquired SGS. Stenosis, due to dense fibrous connective tissue, was still present at death. However, there was evidence that there had been growth of the laryngeal cartilages. Disruption of the laryngeal cartilages was present anteriorly due to the antecedent surgery but major cricoid cartilage injury secondary to intubation was not seen. The crico-arytenoid joints demonstrated ankylosis and to this was attributed the abnormal quality of voice noted in the child at follow-up. The pathological changes are considered in relation to the pathology of endotracheal intubation and pathogenesis of acquired subglottic stenosis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = voice
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9/16. Mobilization of the fixated arytenoid in the stenotic posterior laryngeal commissure.

    Stenosis of the posterior laryngeal commissure with arytenoid fixation following intubation trauma or laryngeal fracture poses a treatment dilemma. Over the past 2 1/2 years we have managed four patients with this problem by mobilization of the fixated cricoarytenoid joint, arytenoid-pharyngeal mucosal advancement flap, brief splinting of the arytenoids in the fully abducted position, and early speech therapy. As of this time, three of the four patients have been both decannulated and have achieved adequate to near normal voices. Most significantly, the previously fixated arytenoids are now mobile, confirming the efficacy of the principles presented herein.
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ranking = 1
keywords = voice
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10/16. Submucosal cordectomy for laryngeal stenosis.

    Submucosal cordectomy, an old procedure first described for the treatment of bilateral abductor vocal cord paralysis, was used to relieve glottic or minimal subglottic stenosis in four patients. Three attained adequate airways with no further procedures; one required subsequent dilations for granulation tissue after which decannulation was successfully effected. Although airway restoration has been successful, the resultant voice has been poor, poorer than that usually achieved with arytenoidectomy. When cricoarytenoid scarring precludes arytenoidectomy and lateral vocal cord fixation, an adequate laryngeal lumen can be restored with submucosal cordectomy if sufficient laryngeal cartilage support remains.
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ranking = 1
keywords = voice
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