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1/7. Axial lateropulsion as a sole manifestation of lateral medullary infarction: a clinical variant related to rostral-dorsolateral lesion.

    A 63-year-old woman presented with an isolated axial lateropulsion as a sole manifestation of lateral medullary infarction. She had no vertigo, nystagmus, dysphagia, hiccup, facial/hemisensory loss, horner syndrome, and limb ataxia. Brain MRI showed a small infarct selectively involving the most dorsolateral portion of the rostral medulla. This patient illustrates that lateral medullary infarction may present as an isolated lateropulsion. The possible mechanism of an isolated lateropulsion is described.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nystagmus
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2/7. Spontaneous nystagmus in dorsolateral medullary infarction indicates vestibular semicircular canal imbalance.

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous nystagmus caused by dorsolateral medullary infarction may be of vestibular origin. OBJECTIVES: To test if imbalance of the central pathways of the semicircular canals contributes to spontaneous nystagmus in dorsolateral medullary syndrome. methods: We examined four patients with dorsolateral medullary syndrome and recorded spontaneous nystagmus binocularly at gaze straight ahead with the three-dimensional search coil technique. The median slow phase velocity of the nystagmus was analysed in the light and in the dark, and the normalised velocity axes were compared with the rotation axes as predicted from anatomical data of the semicircular canal. RESULTS: The slow phase rotation axes of all patients aligned best with the rotation axes resulting from stimulation of the contralesional posterior and horizontal semicircular canals. This alignment cannot be explained by pure otolith imbalance. CONCLUSION: We propose that vestibular imbalance caused by an ipsilesional lesion of the central semicircular canal pathways of the horizontal and anterior semicircular canals largely accounts for spontaneous nystagmus in dorsolateral medullary syndrome.
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ranking = 9
keywords = nystagmus
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3/7. brain stem ischemia from intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula: case report.

    BACKGROUND: Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) with spinal perimedullary venous drainage are rarely reported, but most of the patients initially have presented with myelopathy or subarachnoid hemorrhage. This is the first report of the intracranial dural AVF patient who presented with brain stem infarction. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 38-year-old woman experienced nausea and vomiting with an acute onset, followed by vertigo. magnetic resonance imaging showed ischemic lesion in the medulla oblongata, and she was then sent to our hospital. On admission, she had nystagmus, swallowing difficulties, Homer syndrome, and right hemiparesis and hemisensory disturbance. cerebral angiography revealed dural AVF draining into spinal perimedullary veins at the left transverse-sigmoid sinus. The patient was treated by transvenous embolization under local anesthesia. A microcatheter proceeded to the left sigmoid sinus via the internal jugular vein, and embolization of the sinus was performed using coils without complications. The patient's swallowing difficulties improved over a few days after the embolization, and one month later, there remained only a slight mild hemiparesis and hemisensory disturbance. Six months after the onset, there was no ischemic lesion in the brain stem on magnetic resonance imaging. CONCLUSIONS: In this case, we showed the possibility of brain stem infarction, caused by the intracranial dural AVF.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nystagmus
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4/7. Visual illusions in a patient with lateral medullary syndrome.

    The disturbance of visual perception associated with nystagmus is a rare phenomenon. This is a case of a 61-year-old woman who developed progressive right hemisensory deficit, left facial sensory deficit, vertigo, staggering to the left, left ptosis, vertical diplopia, and ataxia of the left upper extremity. She had rotatory nystagmus in primary position, which increased in amplitude with left gaze. The above signs and symptoms were consistent with lateral medullary syndrome. During her rehabilitation, the patient complained of visual disturbances typical of oscillopsia. These disturbances, or illusions, are compensatory mechanisms for nystagmus and its resultant retinal error. The purpose of this case presentation was to study the pathophysiology underlying oscillopsia in patients with nystagmus and to stimulate awareness of such visual disturbances in stroke patients.
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ranking = 4
keywords = nystagmus
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5/7. Mapping of brainstem lesions by the combined use of tests of visually-induced eye movements.

    To determine the diagnostic value of visually-induced eye movements for indicating the lateralization of the lesion, optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), fixation-suppression of caloric nystagmus and pursuit eye movements were investigated in 28 patients who showed discrete unilateral brainstem lesions. In all patients, pursuit gains decreased in parallel with the direction of the impairment of slow-phase OKN velocity with a significant left/right difference. Decreases of gains were predominantly towards the affected side in 22 patients, whereas they were predominantly towards the contralateral side in 2 patients with dorsal tegmental pontine lesions and in 4 out of 8 patients with Wallenberg's syndrome. The relationship of pursuit gains to percentage reduction of fixation-suppression of caloric nystagmus (%FS) showed no correlation. The following four groups were classified. In group A, which was the largest, pursuit gains and %FS decreased predominantly towards the lesioned side. This group consisted of 5 patients with lesions in the midbrain, 6 patients with lesions in the ventral pons and 4 out of 8 patients with Wallenberg's syndrome. The opposite of group A was group D, showing reverse electro-oculographic (EOG) patterns to those in group A in relation to the lesioned side. Group D consisted of 2 patients with lesions in the dorsal pontine tegmentum. This observation, taken together with the decreases of pursuit and OKN gains in relation to the lesioned side, might indicate that lesions of ascending fibres are responsible for pursuit and OKN abnormalities. Group B, consisting of 7 patients with lesions either in the superior or middle cerebellar peduncles, showed decreased pursuit gains predominantly towards the lesioned side and %FS reduced predominantly towards the side contralateral to the lesion. EOGs of these patients were consistent with the results of floccular ablation in the monkey. In group C, these two parameters showed patterns opposite to those in group B in relation to the lesioned side and this group consisted of the other 4 patients with Wallenberg's syndrome. In patients of this group, the inferior cerebellar peduncle might be involved. The combined use of these tests is thus useful for lateralizing the lesion in the brainstem.
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ranking = 3
keywords = nystagmus
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6/7. Lateral gaze disturbance in a case of Wallenberg's syndrome.

    A 63-year-old Caucasian man was admitted for Wallenberg's syndrome following a left vertebral artery thrombosis. In addition to the classical symptoms, an axial lateropulsion to the left and ocular motor disorders (vertical diplopia, tonic deviation of the gaze to the left, skew deviation and horizonto-rotatory nystagmus) were present. These clinical signs are unusual, but in common Wallenberg's syndrome, neurophysiological tests often reveal slight abnormalities of oculomotor function: impairment of jerks, skew deviation, lateral deviation of the gaze in darkness. Interruption of cerebellar pathways is thought to be the cause of these symptoms. Their existence does not seem to change the outcome of these cases.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nystagmus
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7/7. Visually guided eye movements in patients with Wallenberg's syndrome.

    To determine the lesions and the lateralization in patients with Wallenberg's syndrome, visually-guided eye movements were quantitatively analysed and these findings were compared with a lesioned site as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The 8 patients could be clearly classified into two subgroups based on the functional test of eye movements. In 4 patients, optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), pursuit eye movements and fixation-suppression of caloric nystagmus (FS), utilizing the slow phase velocity as a parameter, were impaired toward the lesioned side in the medulla. In the remaining 4 patients, OKN and pursuit eye movements were impaired toward the side contralateral to the lesion, whereas FS toward the lesioned side, indicating a lesion affecting not only the medulla but also the inferior peduncle and/or the cerebellum. Therefore, the functional visually-guided eye movements can provide a useful test battery with which to detect the lesion site in Wallenberg's syndrome.
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ranking = 2
keywords = nystagmus
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