Cases reported "Lead Poisoning"

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11/116. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 3. Lead exposure.

    Lead levels in North American children and adults have declined in the past 3 decades, but lead persists in the environment in lead paint, old plumbing and contaminated soil. There are also a number of occupations and hobbies that carry a high risk of lead exposure. There is no evidence for a threshold below which lead has no adverse health effects. blood lead levels previously considered safe are now known to cause subtle, chronic health effects. The health effects of lead exposure include developmental neurotoxicity, reproductive dysfunction and toxicity to the kidneys, blood and endocrine systems. Most lead exposures are preventable, and diagnosing lead poisoning is relatively simple compared with diagnosing health effects of exposures to other environmental toxins. Accurate assessment of lead poisoning requires specific knowledge of the sources, high-risk groups and relevant laboratory tests. In this article we review the multiple, systemic toxic effects of lead and provide current information on groups at risk, prevention, diagnosis and clinical treatment. We illustrate how the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, diet and Drugs) and specific screening questions are useful tools for physicians to quickly obtain an environmental exposure history and identify patients at high risk of lead exposure. By applying effective primary prevention, case-finding and treatment interventions for lead exposure, both the individual patient and the larger community reap the benefits of better health.
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12/116. Severe congenital lead poisoning in a preterm infant due to a herbal remedy.

    A preterm infant born to a woman with chronic lead poisoning was found to have the highest blood lead level recorded for a surviving neonate. Parenteral calcium disodium edetate, but not oral succimer, was effective in reducing the infant's lead burden in the neonatal period. An exposure assessment revealed the mother's long-term ingestion of lead-contaminated herbal tablets as the source.
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13/116. Lead-related gout. A case report.

    gout secondary to lead-induced nephropathy is a long-term complication of occupational lead exposure. We report a case of this now-rare condition. The patient was a 63-year-old man who had been a miner from 1950 to 1970. Thirty years after cessation of his exposure to lead, he experienced onset of inflammatory symmetric polyarthritis with joint deformities. hyperuricemia, moderately severe renal failure, and tubular acidosis were found, indicating gouty polyarthritis. blood lead levels were high, establishing that the cause was lead poisoning. EDTA chelation therapy was effective. lead poisoning is frequently under-recognized because the clinical manifestations are often minimal and the diagnosis difficult to establish. We suggest that lead bound to bone may result in continued exposure to lead after cessation of industrial or environmental exposure. chelating agents are valuable for the diagnosis and can ensure a full recovery.
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14/116. Childhood lead poisoning associated with tamarind candy and folk remedies--california, 1999-2000.

    lead poisoning affects children adversely worldwide. In the united states, elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) (>10 microg/dL) result primarily from exposure to lead-based paint or from associated lead-contaminated dust and soil; however, other sources of lead exposure, including folk remedies, Mexican terra cotta pottery, and certain imported candies, also have been associated with elevated BLLs in children. This report describes five cases in california of lead poisoning from atypical sources. Health-care providers should be aware of the potential hazards of certain food products, and community members should be educated about potential sources of lead poisoning for children.
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15/116. Childhood lead poisoning from paint chips: a continuing problem.

    Although lead poisoning (plumbism) has been recognized for centuries, lead exposures still occur frequently today because of its varied uses and persistence in the environment. Despite the awareness of the adverse effects of lead on adults, childhood plumbism was first reported only about a century ago. Young children are one of the most vulnerable groups to the adverse effects of lead because of their rapidly developing central nervous systems. Federal regulations in the 1970s have been successfully implemented to decrease the amount of environmental lead by decreasing the content of lead in gasoline and indoor paint. However, almost 30 years after these laws were passed, inner-city housing with leaded paint still exists. We describe three children living in new york city who developed plumbism from the ingestion of leaded paint chips.
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16/116. Arthroscopic treatment of gunshot wounds to the shoulder.

    Two cases are presented that demonstrate the utility of arthroscopic intervention for the management of gunshot wounds to the shoulder. The first report involves a 24-year-old man with a retained bullet in his glenohumeral joint after a drive-by shooting The intra-articular bullet was retrieved arthroscopically avoiding chondral injury from the mechanical effects of a loose body as well as the potential local and systemic effects of lead toxicity. Irrigation and debridement was performed to evacuate joint debris, which could have served as a nidus for infection or inflammation. The other case describes a 19-year-old man who sustained a gunshot wound to the lateral portion of his upper arm resulting in a proximal humerus fracture along with a retained bullet in his subacromial space. The bullet was successfully removed arthroscopically avoiding a traditional exposure, which would have complicated his fracture care.
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17/116. lead poisoning in pregnancy: a case study with implications for midwives.

    lead poisoning remains a significant problem in the united states affecting the health of women and children. Although the damage is greatest at higher levels of accumulation, no level of lead has been found to be safe. Over the last 25 years, the blood level of lead thought to be associated with toxicity has dropped dramatically, from to 60 mcg/dL in 1960 to 10 mcg/dL today. Studies confirm that exposure to lead causes kidney damage, encephalopathy, and impaired cognitive function in children and in adults. Recent evidence indicates children with levels less than 10 mcg/dL may suffer from compromised development and intellectual performance later in life. This article discusses the case of a woman found to have lead poisoning during pregnancy. Environmental sources of lead, implications for the immediate and future health of the fetus and mother, and techniques clinicians can use in their practice to minimize the adverse effect of lead on their clients are reviewed.
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18/116. Superior vena cava thrombosis in chronic lead exposure--a case report.

    Thrombosis is a rare cause of superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). A 43-year-old male patient with SVCS due to thrombosis underwent investigation for the etiology of thrombus formation. He had been hospitalized several times because of lead intoxication in the past. Lead has a known thrombogenetic effect experimentally. This patient with superior vena cava thrombosis had thrombophilia that was probably due to lead intoxication. The etiologies of venous thrombosis and thrombogenetic effect of chronic lead exposure are discussed.
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19/116. lead poisoning from Indian herbal medicine (Ayurveda)

    OBJECTIVE: To present a case of lead poisoning following ingestion of Indian herbal medicine. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 37-year-old man presented with a history of abdominal pain, anorexia and malaise. He had recently returned from a trip to india where he had been taking two different herbal tonics. Investigation revealed low-grade hepatitis and normocytic anaemia with prominent basophilic stippling. The blood lead concentration was high, and analysis of the herbal tablets revealed a very high lead content. INTERVENTION AND OUTCOME: The patient required narcotic analgesia for abdominal pain and was treated with chelation therapy with calcium ethylenediaminetetra-acetate (calcium EDTA) for five days which resulted in a high urinary excretion of lead and resolution of his symptoms over a period of several days. CONCLUSION: lead poisoning in australia is usually the result of chronic industrial exposure, but practitioners should be aware of the possibility of poisoning from other domestic sources such as unglazed pottery, cosmetics and herbal remedies, especially those from asia and india, in which lead may be present in high concentration. patients from asia who present with unexplained anaemia or abdominal symptoms should be asked about exposure to such sources.
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20/116. Chronic lead poisoning in an adult battery worker.

    BACKGROUND: lead poisoning is a common environmental health hazard in developing countries. Incidences of lead poisoning are seen in all age groups, especially in adults working in lead-based industries, where many still remain unaware of the adverse effects of exposure to unusually high levels of lead. methods: We report the case of an adult battery worker, who initially received symptomatic treatment because of clinical misdiagnosis. Later, he was treated with appropriate chelators, which helped to decrease blood lead levels drastically. However, being unable to change his occupation, he continues to be exposed to potentially lethal doses of lead. CONCLUSIONS: A key role for health agencies, besides providing opportunities for diagnosis and therapy, should be to increase public awareness about this widespread environmental hazard through education, documentation and communication.
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