Cases reported "Learning Disorders"

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1/30. White matter dementia in cadasil.

    Cerebral white matter disorders may be associated with profound neurobehavioral dysfunction. We report a 62-year-old man who had a slowly progressive 25-year history of personality change, psychosis, mood disorder, and dementia. neurologic examination disclosed abulia, impaired memory retrieval, and preserved language, with only minimal motor impairment. Neuropsychological testing found a sustained attention deficit, cognitive slowing, impaired learning with intact recognition, and perseveration. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed extensive leukoencephalopathy. Right frontal brain biopsy showed ill-defined white matter pallor with hyaline narrowing of white matter arterioles. Granular osmiophilic material adjacent to vascular smooth muscle cells on electron microscopy of a skin biopsy, and an arginine for cysteine replacement at position 169 in the 4 EGF motif of the notch 3 region on chromosome 19q12 established the diagnosis of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (cadasil). This case illustrates that cadasil can manifest as an isolated neurobehavioral disorder over an extended time period. The dementia associated with cadasil closely resembles that which may occur with other white matter disorders, and represents an example of white matter dementia.
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keywords = chromosome
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2/30. Mapping studies on a pericentric inversion (18) (p11.31 q21.1) in a family with both schizophrenia and learning disability.

    Chromosomal abnormalities that co-occur with psychiatric disorders can be useful direct pointers to the locus of susceptibility genes. Two families with pericentric inversions of chromosome 18, inv 18(p11.3 q21.1) and psychiatric illness have previously been described. We have fine mapped the chromosomal breakpoints of the rearrangement in a clinically well, inversion carrier from one of these families where other inversion carriers suffered from chronic schizophrenia or severe learning disability. Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) from the Whitehead/MIT physical maps of human chromosome 18 have been positioned relative to the chromosomal breakpoints and a number of YACs that span these breakpoints have been identified. Linkage and association studies have previously suggested these regions of chromosome 18q and 18p as candidate loci harbouring genes involved in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
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keywords = chromosome
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3/30. Clinical and molecular findings in two patients with russell-silver syndrome and UPD7: comparison with non-UPD7 cases.

    The clinical presentation of prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, triangular face, relative macrocephaly, and body asymmetry is frequently diagnosed as Russell-silver syndrome (RSS). Maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 7 was reported previously in a small subset of individuals with RSS phenotype or primordial growth retardation. The primary purpose of this study was to identify RSS patients with UPD7 and determine whether or not they present phenotypic findings that distinguish them from RSS patients without UPD7. UPD7 testing was performed in 40 patients with unexplained growth retardation, including 21 patients with a diagnosis of RSS. In addition, a subset of patients was screened with markers spanning chromosome 7 to detect potential microdeletions or segmental uniparental disomy. Two of the RSS cases were identified to have maternal UPD7; no cases with deletion or partial UPD were detected. Together with previously published studies, UPD7 was identified in 11/120 (9%) of individuals with classical RSS phenotype. Our patients with UPD7 and those previously published had a classical RSS phenotype and were not clinically distinguishable from other children diagnosed with RSS.
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ranking = 2
keywords = chromosome
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4/30. Psychiatric inpatients and chromosome deletions within 22q11.2.

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) is a congenital disorder characterised by multiple dysmorphisms, cleft palate, cardiac anomalies, and learning disabilities due to a microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2. Although VCFS is often associated with psychiatric symptoms, its prevalence among psychiatric patients is unknown. A total of 326 patients admitted in September and October 1997 to a Japanese psychiatric hospital were screened for the clinical features of VCFS. Twelve patients with minor facial dysmorphia were identified; chromosomal analysis with fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) was performed in six patients who, further assessment suggested, were most likely to have VCFS. Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion was identified in a 41 year old woman who had symptoms of schizophrenia but no major dysmorphia, such as cardiovascular anomalies and cleft palate. Her behavioural and neuropsychological profiles were similar to those previously reported in VCFS. She was hemizygous for the FISH probe N25 (GDB locus D22S75) and also for probes N72H9 (D22S181), sc11.1a, C443 (D22S941), sc4.1 (D22S134), sc11.1b, N19B3 (D22S264), N122B5 (D22S934), and N77F7 (D22S939). The size of the deletion was about 3 Mb. Our patient had only some features of VCFS including a square nasal root, hypernasal speech, and hypoparathyroidism. She did, however, have the common larger deletion of type A. This finding suggests that psychiatric symptoms in VCFS can occur without major developmental symptoms such as cardiovascular anomalies and cleft palate. Additional patients with schizophrenia may have subtle features of VCFS which are unrecognised on routine medical examinations.
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ranking = 5
keywords = chromosome
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5/30. Neurodevelopmental profile of a new dysmorphic syndrome associated with submicroscopic partial deletion of 1p36.3.

    We describe four children with dysmorphic syndrome with severe learning disability (SLD). Their chromosomes had been normal on conventional cytogenetic examination. However, screening using a multiprobe fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique for subtelomeric abnormalities revealed a deletion of the p arm of chromosome 1. The physical features include body asymmetry, microcephaly, distinctive facies with deep-set eyes, sharply defined eye sockets, and mid-face hypoplasia; the neurodevelopmental profile was characterised by SLD, motor delay with hypotonia, markedly delayed visual maturation, and postural asymmetry together with epilepsy. This phenotype is consistent with that described for partial monosomy for 1p36.3.
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ranking = 2
keywords = chromosome
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6/30. Velocardiofacial syndrome associated with atrophy of the shoulder girdle muscles and cervicomedullary narrowing.

    Velocardiofacial syndrome is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. It is secondary to a chromosome 22q11 rearrangement and is characterized by craniofacial abnormalities, heart defects and learning disability. We report a case of a 10-year-old girl with a chromosome 22q11 deletion who, in addition to learning difficulties, hypernasal speech and mild dysmorphic features, had weakness and wasting of the shoulder girdle muscles but no cardiac involvement. brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed narrowing of the cervicomedullary junction. The clinical features of this patient with velocardiofacial syndrome further expand the spectrum of abnormalities associated with this condition.
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ranking = 2
keywords = chromosome
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7/30. The 4q-Syndrome.

    The 4q-Syndrome: Here we report four cases of interstitial and terminal deletions of the long arm of chromosome 4. Case 1 is a 16 month old boy with del(4)(q12q21) who has soft dysmorphic features, tetralogy of fallot, and severe developmental delay. Case 2 is a male infant with the same deletion and congenital cardiomyopathy. He suffered severe birth asphyxia and died at the age of 6 months. His father was found to have a complex chromosome 4 rearrangement. Case 3 is a female infant with del(4)(q33) who died of aspiration pneumonia. She was mildly dysmorphic and presented with heart failure and hypercalcaemia. Case 4 is a 8 month old girl who has del(4)(q33) and Pierre-Robin sequence. So far about 70 patients with microscopically visible deletions of chromosome 4q have been described. Although they vary in their phenotypes, they have several features in common. We suggest to use the term 4q-syndrome for all macrodeletions of the long arm of chromosome 4.
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ranking = 4
keywords = chromosome
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8/30. A family with a grand-maternally derived interstitial duplication of proximal 15q.

    About 1% of individuals with autism or types of pervasive developmental disorder have a duplication of the 15q11-q13 region. These abnormalities can be detected by routine G-banded chromosome study, showing an extra marker chromosome, or demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, revealing an interstitial duplication. We report here the molecular, cytogenetic, clinical and neuropsychiatric evaluations of a family in whom 3 of 4 siblings inherited an interstitial duplication of 15q11-q13. This duplication was inherited from their mother who also had a maternally derived duplication. Affected family members had apraxia of speech, phonological awareness deficits, developmental language disorder, dyslexia, as well as limb apraxia but did not have any dysmorphic clinical features. The observations in this family suggest that the phenotypic manifestations of proximal 15q duplications may also involve language-based learning disabilities.
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ranking = 2
keywords = chromosome
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9/30. Fragile X (Martin Bell) syndrome.

    fragile x syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that results from a single gene mutation on the x chromosome. It is the most common genetic cause of learning disability, though many patients remain unrecognized. fragile x syndrome is characterized phenotypically mainly by a long coarse face, prominent ears and macro-orchidism. Affected individuals are also mentally challenged and may have mitral valve prolapse, and seizures. A case of fragile x syndrome is reported, with oral findings and potential management difficulties in oral care.
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ranking = 1
keywords = chromosome
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10/30. Dysmorphic features and learning disability in an adult male with pure partial trisomy 17q24-q25 due to a terminal duplication.

    We describe an adult male with severe learning disability, epilepsy, and dysmorphic features. Cytogenetic studies demonstrated a terminal duplication of the long arm of chromosome 17, resulting in partial trisomy 17q24-q25. Our patient shows some of the characteristic features of the distal 17q phenotype, but in addition has more unusual features such as epilepsy, sensorineural hearing loss, and long fingers and overlapping toes. We suggest that these features occur with terminal duplications of 17q.
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ranking = 1
keywords = chromosome
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