Cases reported "Learning Disorders"

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1/9. Evaluation of facilitated communication.

    Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of Facilitated Communication (FC). A wide variety of sources of data have been examined and consistent behaviour found within FC interactions. There are indications that changes in behaviour of both people resulted at least in part from the use of FC.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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2/9. A school-aged child with delayed reading skills.

    During a health supervision visit, the father of a 7.5-year-old African American second-grader asked about his son's progress in reading. He was concerned when, at a recent teacher-parent conference to review Darren's progress, the teacher remarked that Darren was not keeping up with reading skills compared with others in his class. She said that he had difficulty sounding out some words correctly. In addition, he could not recall words he had read the day before. The teacher commented that Darren was a gregarious, friendly child with better-than-average verbal communication skills. His achievement at math was age-appropriate; spelling, however, was difficult for Darren, with many deleted letters and reversals of written letters. A focused history did not reveal any risk factors for a learning problem in the prenatal or perinatal periods. Early motor, language, and social milestones were achieved on time. Darren had not experienced any head injury, loss of consciousness, or chronic medical illness. He had several friends, and his father denied any behavioral problems at home or at school. His teacher completed a DSM-IV-specific behavioral survey for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It did not show any evidence of ADHD. Darren's father completed 1 year of college and is currently the manager of a neighborhood convenience store. His mother had a high school education; she recalled that she found it difficult to complete assignments that required reading or writing. She is employed as a waitress. Darren does not have any siblings. The pediatrician performed a complete physical examination, the results of which were normal, including visual acuity, audiometry, and a neurological examination. It was noted that Darren seemed to pause several times in response to questions or commands. On two occasions, during finger-nose testing and a request to assess tandem gait, directions required repetition. overall, he was pleasant and seemed to enjoy the visit. His pediatrician concluded that he had a learning problem but she was uncertain about the next step. She asked herself, "Is there anything else I can do in the office to evaluate Darren's problem with learning? Should I quickly refer him for educational testing or encourage a reading tutor? What questions can I ask his teacher that would be helpful? Am I missing a medical disorder?"
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = communication
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3/9. Making sense in conversations about learning disabilities.

    This article describes an integrative, multisystem clinical approach to the psychological and relational problems that develop around learning disabilities. Positioned in relationships with children, families, and schools, the therapist addresses the emotions, interpersonal conflicts, and problematic beliefs that contribute to problems. Using clinical skills to contain and relieve painful emotions, the therapist soothes "inflammation at the boundaries" of relationships among children, families, and schools, depolarizing conflicts within and between systems. Familiar with developmental and educational psychology and developmental neurobiology, the therapist makes this specialized knowledge intelligible to children, families, and teachers. This article describes two specific methods, the chart of strengths and weaknesses and the map of learning functions, which facilitate communication of specialized knowledge about children with learning disabilities. The therapist uses expert knowledge to help members of the treatment system transform blaming, helpless, or hopeless interpretations of the problem into more hopeful constructions, which support healthy development.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = communication
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4/9. The language of dissociation.

    Three case studies of inner-city elementary school children illustrate the connection between speech-language disorders and dissociative disorders in children who have known or suspected trauma histories. The role of speech language pathologists in identifying and responding to dissociative symptoms in children is explored. Lack of adequate training concerning the impact of trauma and scarce literature on the communication profiles of dissociative children contributes and greatly impacts the diagnosis, referral, and treatment of these children. The case studies demonstrate how unusual speech and language symptoms and awareness of dissociative features may aid in identifying trauma-related problems and instituting effective treatment. Grounding techniques and specific language interventions can assist children in acquiring the vocabulary needed for communicating both their daily experiences and traumatic histories. The nature of the relationship between dissociation and communication disorders is explored, and the importance of future research, interdisciplinary collaboration, and trauma training in the speech-language curriculum is emphasized.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = communication
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5/9. Case illustration of a boy with nonverbal learning disorder and Asperger's features: neuropsychological and personality assessment.

    I present a case study of a latency-age boy referred for assessment of a nonverbal learning disability/disorder (NLD) who also had features of Asperger's syndrome (AS). I review NLD terminology, presumed brain-behavior relationship, neuropsychological profile, and diagnosis/classification issues. I discuss the challenge of differentiating NLD from AS in relation to the client's pattern of visual-spatial, communication, social-emotional, and behavioral NLD correlates. I integrate neuropsychological and personality assessment data with interviews, observations, prior testing, and input from teacher and therapist in formulating a diagnostic impression. I discuss Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and neuropsychological consultations in relation to subtle language and interpersonal features of the client's communication style. I provide parent feedback at 18 and 24 months posttesting. I discuss implications relative to a model of school neuropsychological assessment that includes the rorschach test.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = communication
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6/9. MRI findings in the parents and siblings of specifically language-impaired boys.

    Four families that include a specifically language-impaired (SLI) boy were studied to test the hypothesis that developmental language disorders are biologically transmittable. A majority of the parents of the SLI boys had experienced communication difficulty (i.e., difficulty with speech, language, or academic skills) as children. Evidence of communication difficulty was paired on an individual basis with neuroanatomical data obtained through quantitative analysis of magnetic resonance imaging scans. Atypical perisylvian asymmetries were documented in a majority of the parents and were frequently associated with a history of communication difficulty. Atypical perisylvian asymmetries and disordered language skills were also documented for siblings of SLI boys. These findings suggest that atypical perisylvian asymmetries reflect a transmittable, biological factor that places some families at risk for language impairment.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = communication
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7/9. autistic disorder in sotos syndrome: a case report.

    A case study of a child with sotos syndrome, normal intelligence, and autistic disorder is presented. Initial descriptions of sotos syndrome included severe to mild mental retardation. More recent studies indicate language and learning disabilities with normal intelligence. Our patient met criteria for a diagnosis of autistic disorder. sotos syndrome is another genetic and neurodevelopmental syndrome that can be associated with autistic as well as communication and language disorders.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = communication
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8/9. learning disabilities and central auditory dysfunction.

    hearing loss, whether peripheral or central, compounds the communication and educational problems of the learning disabled student. A central auditory processing disorder uniquely interferes with both the input and integration of verbal information, further resulting in a potentially permanent cognitive dysfunction during the developmental period of acquisition of language. Illustrative cases are presented that indicate the panorama of cognitive dysfunction associated with the learning disabled status. methods of evaluation and identification and diagnostic criteria are correlated with auditory, visual, and academic performance. Comments regarding clinical awareness, prompt recognition, and ensuing individualized remediation are submitted.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = communication
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9/9. Communication about parental illness with children who have learning disabilities and behavioural problems: three case studies.

    Parental illness can have a profound impact on family relationships and children's behaviour. The amount and nature of communication between parents and children about the illness can play an important role, both positively and negatively, in mediating the outcomes. When children have a disability, families can be reluctant to communicate with them about family difficulties. They are often concerned about the impact that parental unavailability may have on their child's life. This paper reports on three families in which the mother was diagnosed with breast cancer and one child in the family had a disability. The extent and specific characteristics of their communication about the maternal illness with their children, behavioural changes in the children, explanations of communication strategies and attributions of behavioural changes are described. family coping strategies are examined with reference to Lazarus's process model of stress and coping and the use of either problem-focused or emotion-focused strategies. Implications for possible clinical interventions are proposed. In particular it is suggested that families be offered consultation about: what children might understand; ways in which to communicate effectively; and strategies for coping with the long-term implications of serious parental illness.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = communication
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