Cases reported "Learning Disorders"

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1/6. Cognitive behaviour therapy and people with learning disabilities: implications for developing nursing practice.

    People with learning disabilities are an ageing and increasing population and have been the subject of policy initiatives by the four countries of the UK, detailing the range of supports that need to be in place for this group. The evidence base of their mental health needs is growing and with it the need to ensure the full range of psychotherapies available to the general population are made available to people with learning disabilities. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is now a widely accepted and effective form of psychotherapy for many mental health problems and the evidence base is growing on the effectiveness with the learning disability population; however, the model needs to be applied differently for this group to take account of their cognitive impairment and support needs. Registered nurses in learning Disabilities are well placed to apply this approach within their clinical practice; however, there is an absence of leadership and direction in the development of CBT for this group of clinicians. There is a need to support education and practice development to contribute to addressing the emotional needs of people with learning disabilities. Action is required to support education to prepare Registered nurses in learning Disabilities to practice CBT and to contribute to the ongoing development of research in this area of clinical practice.
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ranking = 1
keywords = psychotherapy
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2/6. Clinical use of dreams with latency-age children.

    Although various authors have discussed the technical modification required for dream interpretation with children, the basic conceptualization of the psychotherapeutic use of the dream with children has remained virtually identical to that with adult analysands. Examining various sources including formal studies on the nature of children's dreams, clinical case reports and series, and cognitive theories, the authors conclude that a dream arising in the course of a child's therapy must be conceptualized theoretically as a posttraumatic phenomenon. This holds whether or not there has been overt trauma to the child. The reasons for the conceptualization include both the heightened degree of anxiety contained in a dream reported in the course of psychotherapy as well as the specific cognitive abilities of children to contain anxiety and abstract and generalize symbolic meanings. A specific technique based on this conceptualization is then detailed that calls for translation of the dream into more tangible expression (drawing, play, etc.) and a noninterpretative approach. The authors also discuss the more general problem of the nature of insight in children.
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ranking = 1
keywords = psychotherapy
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3/6. Group psychotherapy and the learning disabled adolescent.

    This paper describes the special benefits provided by group psychotherapy for adolescents with learning disabilities. Group psychotherapy is a form of treatment with distinct advantages for assisting learning disabled adolescents whose perceptual problems and subsequent inability to correctly perceive social cues have led to difficulties in interpersonal relationships and to antisocial behavior. A brief description of short-term psychotherapy groups and specific information about how the group was conducted is furnished. The rationale outlined regarding the utility of group psychotherapy with learning disabled adolescents is illustrated by two clinical case vignettes which depict how the group process facilitated positive changes in the interpersonal skills of these youngsters in a relatively brief period of time.
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ranking = 8
keywords = psychotherapy
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4/6. I.Q. changes in young children following intensive long-term psychotherapy.

    A review of the literature revealed only three cases of long-term psychotherapy of young children in which significant I.Q. gains were reported. A series of ten children is presented who received intensive long-term psychotherapeutic treatment and who obtained a mean I.Q. gain of 27.9 points.
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ranking = 5
keywords = psychotherapy
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5/6. Pitfalls in the psychoeducational assessment of adolescents with learning and school adjustment problems.

    Over the past decade there has been a growing interest on the part of educators, medical specialists, mental health personnel, and the lay public in the diagnosis, evaluation, and remediation of specific learning disabilities in the school-age child. This paper attempts to show through case illustrations of five high school-age adolescents how parents can seek from clinical evaluators a diagnostic impression of primary learning disability for their nonlearning disabled children; how this otherwise legitimate diagnostic category can be inappropriately used in the service of denying the salient individual, emotional, and family system factors at work in the school-related difficulties; and how the label of learning disability can work as a formidable resistance on the part of the family when, following comprehensive, in-depth assessment, professional recommendations focus less on specific educational remediation and more on the need for individual or family psychotherapy. Suggestions are made for dealing with this clinical issue.
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ranking = 1
keywords = psychotherapy
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6/6. Emotional disorder in XYY children: four case reports.

    Four boys, from a group of fourteen with an XYY chromosome constitution identified by cytogenetic screening at birth, were referred for psychiatric treatment, age seven to nine years. Presenting symptoms included severe temper tantrums, stealing and enuresis, and they were diagnosed as having mild to severe emotional disorders. There were multiple factors of increased risk for psychiatric disturbance in their backgrounds nd there was evidence of reactive depression in all four boys. Treatment with individual and family psychotherapy, combined with antidepressant medication in two of the four children and special educational provisions in one, resulted in good short-term outcome comparable to that achieved in chromosomally normal boys.
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ranking = 1
keywords = psychotherapy
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