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1/5. child with velocardiofacial syndrome and del (4)(q34.2): another critical region associated with a velocardiofacial syndrome-like phenotype.

    We report on a child with congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, pulmonic stenosis), submucosal cleft palate, hypernasal speech, learning difficulties, and right fifth finger anomaly manifestations, consistent with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS); however, cytogenetic analysis demonstrated a small terminal deletion of the segment 4q34.2 to 4qter. Fluorescent in situ hybridization did not identify a deletion of the critical region associated with VCFS. In previously reported 4q deletions with a breakpoint distal to 4q34.2, no cardiac defects or cleft of palate were reported. Our patient has a deletion of 4q34.2 to 4qter and has palate and cardiac involvement and minor learning difficulties, which implies that genes involved in heart and palate development lie distal to 4q34.2, and that the critical region for more severe mental retardation on 4q may reside proximal to 4q34.2. These results suggest that a distal 4q deletion can lead to a phenotype similar to VCFS and emphasizes the importance of searching for other karyotype abnormalities when a VCFS-like phenotype is present and a 22q deletion is not identified.
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keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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2/5. Velocardiofacial syndrome associated with atrophy of the shoulder girdle muscles and cervicomedullary narrowing.

    Velocardiofacial syndrome is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. It is secondary to a chromosome 22q11 rearrangement and is characterized by craniofacial abnormalities, heart defects and learning disability. We report a case of a 10-year-old girl with a chromosome 22q11 deletion who, in addition to learning difficulties, hypernasal speech and mild dysmorphic features, had weakness and wasting of the shoulder girdle muscles but no cardiac involvement. brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed narrowing of the cervicomedullary junction. The clinical features of this patient with velocardiofacial syndrome further expand the spectrum of abnormalities associated with this condition.
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ranking = 0.11111111111111
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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3/5. Abnormal carotid arteries in the velocardiofacial syndrome: a report of three cases.

    Internal carotid arteries of unusual size and tortuosity were found before or at the time of pharyngeal flap surgery in three children who had the velocardiofacial syndrome with velopharyngeal insufficiency. In two cases, medial displacement of the arteries prevented surgery, and in the other, hypernasality persisted because only a narrow, asymmetrical flap could be raised. Medial displacement of the internal carotid arteries inhibits surgical treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency, necessitating treatment with a prosthetic speech device in such children. Since displacement and tortuosity may be associated findings in the velocardiofacial syndrome, the exact location of the internal carotids should be ascertained when pharyngeal flap surgery is planned.
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keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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4/5. Velocardiofacial syndrome with facial and pinna asymmetries.

    This study reports some of the most important clinical features of the velocardiofacial syndrome (hypoplastic zygomatic arch, prominent nose with square nasal root, bilateral epicanthus, downslanting palpebral fissures, and learning disabilities) in a Brazilian boy presenting face and pinna asymmetries. These findings may facilitate the diagnosis of this syndrome.
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ranking = 0.11111111111111
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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5/5. Childhood-onset schizophrenia associated with parkinsonism in a patient with a microdeletion of chromosome 22.

    The deletion of a gene or genes on chromosome 22q11 is responsible for the velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), which is associated with cardiac anomalies, short stature, palate abnormalities, learning disabilities, and developmental delay. Herein we describe a 30-year-old man with VCFS in whom a chronic psychotic disorder originated during childhood. A 10% rate of psychotic disorders has been reported in association with this genetic syndrome. In our patient, the clinical manifestation was complicated by extrapyramidal symptoms that predated the onset of psychotic symptoms. To our knowledge, extrapyramidal symptoms have not previously been reported in a patient with VCFS. The diagnosis of VCFS was confirmed with the fluorescence in situ hybridization probe for VCFS. The role of the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine is discussed with respect to treating this patient who has severe psychotic symptoms coexisting with extrapyramidal symptoms and seizures. In light of the observation that patients with VCFS have an unexpectedly high rate of psychotic disorders, issues concerning the genetics of schizophrenia are intriguing.
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ranking = 0.11111111111111
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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