Cases reported "Leg Injuries"

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1/83. Amputated lower limbs as a bank of organs for other organ salvage.

    Aggressive modern technologies have made it possible to attempt limb salvage in even the most extreme cases. However, it is imperative to remember that prolonged salvage attempts may lead to devastating complications. The decision-making is more problematic in patients with bilateral severely injured mangled lower limbs. In such a case, protocols like the MESS are no longer valid because of the implications of bilateral amputation. In these rare cases, we use a multi-team approach and modern micro-surgical reconstructive techniques in attempting to salvage at least one of the lower limbs. We present here our experience in six patients with bilateral mangled lower limbs where an amputated limb was the source of "spare parts" for the salvage of the contralateral limb. In each of the cases, after evaluation and planning, the harvesting of the required tissues (including skin, muscle, bone, nerve and blood vessels) from the amputated leg was performed and simultaneously, a reconstruction of the contralateral severely injured limb was done. These cases emphasize the importance of modern trauma care, not only the ability to treat multiply traumatized patients, but also the capability to execute sophisticated techniques during the acute phase of treatment with maximal cooperation between teams from different disciplines.
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keywords = bone
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2/83. Transcranial doppler detection of fat emboli.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The fat embolism syndrome (FES) is characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of pulmonary and neurological symptoms as well as skin and mucosal petechiae in the setting of long-bone fractures or their surgical repair. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood, and effective treatments are lacking. We present 5 patients with long-bone fractures in whom in vivo microembolism was detected by transcranial Doppler. methods: Five patients with long-bone fractures were monitored with transcranial Doppler for microembolic signals (MESs) after trauma. Two patients also had intraoperative monitoring. A TC-2020 instrument equipped with MES detection software was used. Detected signals were saved for subsequent review. Selected signals satisfied criteria defined previously and were categorized as large or small. RESULTS: Cerebral microembolism was detected in all 5 patients and was transient, resolving within 4 days of injury. Intraoperative monitoring revealed an increase in MESs during intramedullary nail insertion. The characteristics of MESs after injury varied among patients, with large signals being more frequent in the only patient with a patent foramen ovale. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral microembolism after long-bone fractures can be detected in vivo and monitored over time. These findings may have potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
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ranking = 4
keywords = bone
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3/83. Primary reconstruction of traumatic bony defects using allografts.

    We retrospectively reviewed 207 patients suffering from traumatic bone defect who had been treated at our institution between 1973 and 1993. Three types of traumatic bone defects were identified: I, minor; II, major cortical; III, major articular. Each type was further subdivided into: A, open injury; B, closed injury. The proposed treatment modality of each type was included within each classification. Types II and III posed the greatest difficulties in management. However, massive bone allografts can be successfully used in these situations, even in the early phases of treatment, but only given specific prerequisites.
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keywords = bone
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4/83. Ossification in the rectus sheath following free rectus flap.

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a rare complication of laparotomy wounds. In this report, we describe an unusual presentation of ossification within the closed sheath following the harvest of a free rectus flap for lower limb reconstruction. Of specific interest to this case is that access to the rectus was gained through a lower transverse approach. Furthermore, the extremities of this incision were utilised for harvest of cancellous bone from the iliac crests. Given that one explanation for HO is intraoperative seeding it is of note that no problem was encountered in the wound intimately associated with the bony disruption.
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keywords = bone
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5/83. Free flap to the arteria peronea magna for lower limb salvage.

    A 36-year-old woman sustained an amputation of her right leg at the thigh level and a degloving injury of her left foot and ankle region in an accident during a suicide attempt. Primarily, her left foot was covered with a split skin graft, resulting in a soft-tissue defect at the medial malleolus and at the calcaneus bone. Reconstruction was planned with a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap. Preoperative examinations revealed an arteria peronea magna with a hyperplastic peroneal artery solely providing arterial blood supply to the foot. The arteria peronea magna divided into two branches proximal to the upper ankle joint, replacing the dorsal pedis artery and the medial plantar artery. Tibial posterior and tibial anterior arteries were hypoplastic-aplastic. Microvascular end-to-end anastomoses of the flap vessels to the medial branch ("medial plantar artery") of the arteria peronea magna and its concomitant vein at the medial malleolar bone level were successfully performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Four weeks postoperatively, the patient started walking assisted by a prosthesis on her right thigh stump. This experience demonstrates that even in a case of arteria peronea magna, free flap surgery for lower limb salvage is a reliable and worthwhile method.
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6/83. Field hospital treatment of blast wounds of the musculoskeletal system during the Yugoslav civil war.

    The spectrum of wounding and treatment of forty-one patients with musculoskeletal blast injuries at a U.S. military field hospital in the former yugoslavia was reviewed. patients underwent wound exploration, irrigation, debridement, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, early fracture stabilization, and appropriate reconstructive surgery. Four patients developed wound infections. Two patients died as a result of their injuries (overall mortality 5 percent). There were three below-knee amputations and five other amputations (above-knee, ankle, midtarsal, partial forefoot, and finger). Three patients sustained lumbar burst fractures from mines that exploded under their vehicles, resulting in paraplegia in one case. Our patients underwent 112 surgical procedures, an average of 2.1 per patient. Twenty-two patients (54 percent) had other injuries or conditions in addition to their orthopaedic wounds. There were wide variations in the bone and soft tissue injuries caused by detonating ordnance, and the tissue damage was qualitatively different from that caused by gunshot wounds. Early debridement, leaving wounds open, and treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics were important factors in wound healing to allow subsequent successful reconstructive surgery in an austere field setting.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bone
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7/83. The distally based superficial sural flap: our experience in reconstructing the lower leg and foot.

    The treatment of soft-tissue defects of the lower third of the leg and foot is often an awkward problem to tackle because of the frequent involvement of muscle, tendon, and bone, which is caused by the thinness and poor circulation of the skin covering them and by the small quantity of local tissue available for reconstruction. The authors present their experience with the use of sural flaps for the treatment of small- and medium-size defects of the distal region of the lower limb. The flap used was a distally based fasciocutaneous flap raised in the posterior region of the lower two thirds of the leg. Vascularization was ensured by the superficial sural artery, which accompanies the sural nerve together with the short saphenous vein. The authors treated 18 patients (12 men and 6 women) from May 1997 to August 1999 at the Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Turin, italy. Superficial necrosis without involvement of the deep fascia (which was grafted 1 month later) occurred in 1 patient of the 18 treated. In another 2 patients, defects were found in the flap margins, but no additional surgical revision was necessary, and recovery occurred by secondary intention. In every patient the sural flaps provided good coverage of the defects, both from a functional and an aesthetic point of view. The major advantages of this flap are its easy and quick dissection. Because the major arterial axis is not sacrificed, this flap can be used in a traumatic leg with damaged major arteries.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bone
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8/83. Osseous overgrowth after post-traumatic amputation of the lower extremity in childhood.

    Severe accidents in children may cause extreme destruction of the lower extremities. In some cases, there is no possibility to preserve the limbs. Initially, a weight-bearing stump cannot be achieved after amputation due to unstable local and soft tissue conditions. This critical situation is often complicated by one of the leading problems in the limb-deficient child - the development of osseous overgrowth. Bizarre overgrowth of the stump may lead to skin perforation, pressure ulcers, and difficulties with the prosthesis. Since 1993, we have been able to follow five pediatric and adolescent patients (2 years to 17 years old) with six post-traumatic amputations of the lower extremities. Four of these cases developed osseous overgrowth. One child treated with initial autologous stump-capping had excellent soft tissue conditions and no problems with the artificial limb. We also report on a case of bizarre and extensive new bone formation. We conclude that close follow-up visits after post-traumatic amputations in children are essential because of new bone formation which may endanger the soft tissue situation of the stump. Unfortunately, surgical revisions have to be performed quite often. To avoid several surgical corrections, an initial stump-capping with autologous material from the injured limb can be performed. Thus, the number of secondary procedures may be reduced drastically.
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ranking = 2
keywords = bone
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9/83. Management of lawnmower injuries to the lower extremity in children and adolescents.

    Lawnmower-associated trauma remains a substantial source of extremity injury in the pediatric and adolescent patient populations, producing complex wounds that require a combined orthopedic and plastic surgical approach. The authors review their experience with 16 patients, 2 to 17 years of age (mean age, 6.2 years), who were admitted to Duke University Medical Center for lower extremity lawnmower trauma between January 1988 and December 1999. The average hospitalization time was 13.5 days, and an average of 2.9 surgical procedures per patient were performed. Early debridement and bony fixation were carried out in all patients; 8 patients sustained traumatic amputations. Fifteen of 20 nonamputation fractures involved the foot and were managed with either closed reduction or K-wire fixation. Three of five long-bone fractures underwent external fixation. Wound closure was achieved with direct closure or skin grafting in the majority of patients. However, five microsurgical free flap transfers were required for extensive defect reconstruction of the foot (N = 4) and knee (N = 1). Adequate immediate debridement, fracture reduction, and early primary or if necessary secondary wound coverage including microsurgical free tissue transfer to prevent further damage and long-term disability in these type of devastating injuries is recommended.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bone
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10/83. Salvage of major amputation stumps of the lower extremity with latissimus dorsi free flaps.

    In some severe lower limb injuries, the level of bone trauma enables preservation of the knee joint or adequate length of the femoral stump only if the soft tissues can be reconstructed over the exposed bone. The options for soft-tissue reconstruction of an amputation stump are to use a flap from the amputated distal part, a local flap possibly after tissue expansion or a free flap. To preserve an adequate length of stump we reconstructed 10 stumps with latissimus dorsi free flaps: above the knee in one patient and below the knee in nine. The reconstructions were done during an acute post-traumatic phase in five and for late problems with the stump in four patients. In one patient the reconstruction was done nine weeks after a below-knee amputation for ischaemic necrosis after septicaemia. All flaps survived, but the venous anastomosis had to be revised in three patients in the early postoperative period. All patients regained adequate ambulation for their daily activities. The flap was secondarily debulked in three patients. Every effort should be made to preserve an adequate stump length, particularly in young patients with crushing injuries of the extremities and when there is severe or recurrent late stump ulceration. A latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous soft-tissue reconstruction is a reliable and durable option for stump defects.
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keywords = bone
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