Cases reported "Leg Injuries"

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1/71. Variants in the deep circumflex iliac artery: clinical considerations in raising iliac osteocutaneous free flaps.

    Anomalies of the deep circumflex iliac artery do occur, although they are uncommon. Recently, two cases of these anomalies were encountered by the authors during elevation of iliac osteocutaneous free flaps. In the first case, the deep circumflex iliac artery was absent, and the nourishing artery of the flap was instead connected to the large iliolumbar artery. In the second case, the ascending branch, deriving from the deep circumflex iliac artery as usual, had a separate takeoff directly from the external iliac artery, and provided blood supply to the overlying skin as a musculocutaneous perforator that transversed the three muscle layers of the abdominal wall. This ascending branch was assumed to be a duplication of the deep circumflex iliac artery. Ascertaining the divergence of the deep circumflex iliac artery from the external iliac artery before beginning to raise the flap, and careful dissection of the artery, are essential for minimizing problems in flap transfer.
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keywords = deep
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2/71. Free flap to the arteria peronea magna for lower limb salvage.

    A 36-year-old woman sustained an amputation of her right leg at the thigh level and a degloving injury of her left foot and ankle region in an accident during a suicide attempt. Primarily, her left foot was covered with a split skin graft, resulting in a soft-tissue defect at the medial malleolus and at the calcaneus bone. Reconstruction was planned with a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap. Preoperative examinations revealed an arteria peronea magna with a hyperplastic peroneal artery solely providing arterial blood supply to the foot. The arteria peronea magna divided into two branches proximal to the upper ankle joint, replacing the dorsal pedis artery and the medial plantar artery. Tibial posterior and tibial anterior arteries were hypoplastic-aplastic. Microvascular end-to-end anastomoses of the flap vessels to the medial branch ("medial plantar artery") of the arteria peronea magna and its concomitant vein at the medial malleolar bone level were successfully performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Four weeks postoperatively, the patient started walking assisted by a prosthesis on her right thigh stump. This experience demonstrates that even in a case of arteria peronea magna, free flap surgery for lower limb salvage is a reliable and worthwhile method.
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ranking = 0.097909580070768
keywords = vein
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3/71. The distally based superficial sural flap: our experience in reconstructing the lower leg and foot.

    The treatment of soft-tissue defects of the lower third of the leg and foot is often an awkward problem to tackle because of the frequent involvement of muscle, tendon, and bone, which is caused by the thinness and poor circulation of the skin covering them and by the small quantity of local tissue available for reconstruction. The authors present their experience with the use of sural flaps for the treatment of small- and medium-size defects of the distal region of the lower limb. The flap used was a distally based fasciocutaneous flap raised in the posterior region of the lower two thirds of the leg. Vascularization was ensured by the superficial sural artery, which accompanies the sural nerve together with the short saphenous vein. The authors treated 18 patients (12 men and 6 women) from May 1997 to August 1999 at the Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Turin, italy. Superficial necrosis without involvement of the deep fascia (which was grafted 1 month later) occurred in 1 patient of the 18 treated. In another 2 patients, defects were found in the flap margins, but no additional surgical revision was necessary, and recovery occurred by secondary intention. In every patient the sural flaps provided good coverage of the defects, both from a functional and an aesthetic point of view. The major advantages of this flap are its easy and quick dissection. Because the major arterial axis is not sacrificed, this flap can be used in a traumatic leg with damaged major arteries.
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ranking = 0.20902069118188
keywords = deep, vein
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4/71. Pathologic features of fatal shark attacks.

    To examine the pattern of injuries in cases of fatal shark attack in South Australian waters, the authors examined the files of their institution for all cases of shark attack in which full autopsies had been performed over the past 25 years, from 1974 to 1998. Of the seven deaths attributed to shark attack during this period, full autopsies were performed in only two cases. In the remaining five cases, bodies either had not been found or were incomplete. Case 1 was a 27-year-old male surfer who had been attacked by a shark. At autopsy, the main areas of injury involved the right thigh, which displayed characteristic teeth marks, extensive soft tissue damage, and incision of the femoral artery. There were also incised wounds of the right wrist. Bony injury was minimal, and no shark teeth were recovered. Case 2 was a 26-year-old male diver who had been attacked by a shark. At autopsy, the main areas of injury involved the left thigh and lower leg, which displayed characteristic teeth marks, extensive soft tissue damage, and incised wounds of the femoral artery and vein. There was also soft tissue trauma to the left wrist, with transection of the radial artery and vein. Bony injury was minimal, and no shark teeth were recovered. In both cases, death resulted from exsanguination following a similar pattern of soft tissue and vascular damage to a leg and arm. This type of injury is in keeping with predator attack from underneath or behind, with the most severe injuries involving one leg. Less severe injuries to the arms may have occurred during the ensuing struggle. Reconstruction of the damaged limb in case 2 by sewing together skin, soft tissue, and muscle bundles not only revealed that no soft tissue was missing but also gave a clearer picture of the pattern of teeth marks, direction of the attack, and species of predator.
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ranking = 0.19581916014154
keywords = vein
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5/71. Flap transfers for the treatment of perichondrial ring injuries with soft tissue defects.

    Seven cases (six fresh) of perichondrial ring injury with skin defects were treated using flap transfers. The study included four boys and three girls ranging in age from 2 to 9 years (average 6). They were followed up for an average of 8 years and 10 months. The period from injury to flap coverage was 8-12 days, with an average of 10 days in the fresh cases. Fracture was noted in four cases, with one an epiphyseal fracture. Peroneal flaps were transferred in four cases, latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps in two, and gastrocnemius muscle flap in one. Six flaps survived perfectly, and one failed due to venous thrombosis. This latter case was treated with a cross leg flap. Postoperative radiographic assessments confirmed partial growth plate arrest in the chronic case, but all the fresh cases had no postoperative growth disturbance. Flap coverage, for perichondrial ring injuries with wide skin defects, is a useful method not only for skin coverage, but for the prevention of growth disturbances as well.
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ranking = 2.0840481977543
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis
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6/71. Successful free flap transfer and salvage in sickle cell trait.

    The presence of sickle cell haemoglobin is generally regarded as a contraindication to free tissue transfer. We present the case of a 42-year-old male with sickle cell trait who had free transfer of a latissimus dorsi flap to cover a gunshot wound to his thigh. His initial haemoglobin S was 36%. Early flap failure from venous thrombosis was successfully salvaged by re-anastomosis to alternative vessels.
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ranking = 2.0840481977543
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis
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7/71. limb salvage of lower-extremity wounds using free gracilis muscle reconstruction.

    An extensive series reviewing the benefits and drawbacks of use of the gracilis muscle in lower-extremity trauma has not previously been collected. In this series of 50 patients, the use of microvascular free transfer of the gracilis muscle for lower-extremity salvage in acute traumatic wounds and posttraumatic chronic wounds is reviewed. In addition, the wound size, injury patterns, problems, and results unique to the use of the gracilis as a donor muscle for lower-extremity reconstruction are identified. In a 7-year period from 1991 to 1998, 50 patients underwent lower-extremity reconstruction using microvascular free gracilis transfer at the University of maryland shock Trauma Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, and Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center. There were 22 patients who underwent reconstruction for coverage of acute lower-extremity traumatic soft-tissue defects associated with open fractures. The majority of patients were victims of high-energy injuries with 91 percent involving motor vehicle or motorcycle accidents, gunshot wounds, or pedestrians struck by vehicles. Ninety-one percent of the injuries were Gustilo type IIIb tibial fractures and 9 percent were Gustilo type IIIc. The mean soft-tissue defect size was 92.2 cm2. Successful limb salvage was achieved in 95 percent of patients. Twenty-eight patients with previous Gustilo type IIIb tibia-fibula fractures presented with posttraumatic chronic wounds characterized by osteomyelitis or deep soft-tissue infection. Successful free-tissue transfer was accomplished in 26 of 28 patients (93 percent). All but one of the patients in this group who underwent successful limb salvage (26 of 27, or 96 percent) are now free of infection. Use of the gracilis muscle as a free-tissue transfer has been shown to be a reliable and predictable tool in lower-extremity reconstruction, with a flap success and limb salvage rate comparable to those in other large studies.
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keywords = deep
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8/71. Imaging of frostbite injury by technetium-99m-sestamibi scintigraphy: a case report.

    The appearance of superficial tissue is often an unreliable indicator of deep-tissue viability in cases of frostbite. We present a 34-year-old black man who was brought to the emergency department at fourth post-injury day with frostbite injury involving both lower extremities after prolonged exposure to subzero temperatures. In our previous experimental study, 99mTc sestamibi scintigraphy has been employed for evaluating frostbite injuries in rabbit hindlegs. In the case presented, 99mTc sestamibi scintigraphy, as a new diagnostic tool, was performed for detection of skeletal muscle perfusion on the fourth post-injury day. The scintigraphic images show diffusely reduced uptake in soft tissues of both calves and feet. It was thought that this hypoperfusion was due to viable but ischemic tissue. Five days after medical therapy, 99mTc sestamibi scan showed prominently increased uptake in both calves and feet and skin necrosis was observed. debridement of necrotic skin and subcutaneous tissue was performed, and split-thickness skin graft was applied for coverage of the skin defect. Healing was good 15 days after grafting. We think 99mTc sestamibi scan can be used for assessment of soft-tissue perfusion and evaluation of treatment in frostbite injury.
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ranking = 0.11111111111111
keywords = deep
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9/71. Pedicled foot fillet flap based on the tibialis anterior vessels: case report.

    A case of an 18-year-old male with extensive posterior and lateral soft-tissue loss of the lower leg is reported. There was a segmental defect of 20 cm in the tibialis posterior neurovascular bundle, and the injury was not considered reconstructable. There was extensive soft-tissue trauma to the posterior compartments of the leg, with an intact and well-perfused foot. A primary amputation was indicated. The foot was used as a fillet flap for tibial length preservation and optimal stump coverage. The foot fillet flap was pedicled on the tibialis anterior vessels, preserving the deep plantar, first dorsal metatarsal, and anterior communicating vessels. The postoperative evolution was uneventful, with successful prosthetic adaptation.
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keywords = deep
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10/71. Deep partial thickness burn after contact with a Meal Ready-To-Eat heater.

    A case of a Meal Ready-To-Eat heater injury resulting in a deep partial thickness burn is presented. The patient was treated as an outpatient at our battalion aid station. By establishing the depth, extent, and severity of a burn injury, a decision can be made regarding whether outpatient or inpatient therapy is appropriate. A brief description of the Meal Ready-To-Eat heater injury and general guidelines for the outpatient management of burns are presented.
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