Cases reported "Leg Length Inequality"

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1/27. Salvage of the lower leg using a reversed long free fibular flap.

    The advantages of end-to-side anastomoses have been well documented in microvascular surgery. The vessels of the fibular flap do not usually permit end-to-side anastomosis to recipient vessels in the proximal part of the lower leg because the pedicle length of the free fibular flap is usually too short. Therefore, vein grafts are used to elongate the vessels. If a harvested long free fibular flap that is used to bridge a massive defect of the tibia is reversed and placed into the medullary cavity of the tibia, the flap vessels can be anastomosed, using the end-to-side technique, to the recipient vessels without vein grafts in the distal part of the lower leg. Thus, the flap artery (the peroneal artery) fills in a retrograde fashion. The patient reported was reconstructed with a reversed long free fibular flap. The postoperative period was uneventful. The patient can stand and walk with a protective shoe 2 years postoperatively.
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2/27. Unilateral tibial hemimelia with leg length inequality and varus foot: external fixator treatment.

    A 15-year-old girl with type II unilateral hemimelia presented with a 13.5-cm shortening of her right leg, absence of the distal half of the tibia, tibiofibular synostosis, and medial dislocation of a cavus and varus foot. She was treated by means of an external fixator. The shortening was significantly corrected, and realignment of the foot with the limb was achieved. An arthrodesis of the talus and lower end of the fibula was carried out operatively and stabilized with an external fixator. In the same surgical procedure, we performed an osteotomy of the tibiofibular synostosis, and progressive distraction was done with another external fixator. We emphasize the advantages of progressive distraction for the correction of congenital deformities of the limbs.
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3/27. Preoperative planning in deformity correction and limb lengthening surgery.

    A simple method of preoperative planning in deformity correction and limb lengthening surgery is described and illustrated with two cases of deformity associated with length discrepancy. Frontal and lateral radiographs allow defining a deformity in its actual plane. Tracings are made, axes are marked, and the deformity is analyzed graphically. A problem list is created on a worksheet. The osteotomies are made with scissors on the worksheet and the segments are angulated into position to test the correction. The method of fixation is selected and the patient seen preoperatively to address issues to be encountered during the correction.
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4/27. magnetic resonance imaging of growth plate injuries: the efficacy and indications for surgical procedures.

    In 23 patients with growth plate injuries, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed a total of 31 times to evaluate the physis which showed plain radiographic evidence of possible damage. Fourteen patients clinically showed growth arrest, and 10 patients required a Langenskiold operation. In 3 patients who underwent this operation, subsequent premature total fusion of the physis adversely affected the postoperative results. We propose that the merging shape of the arrest line with calcification of the provisional zone of the metaphysis shown by MRI indicates poor viability of the physis. MRI provided useful information on the appearance of the growth plate and changes in the metaphysis, both of which affected the prognosis and the results of the surgical procedures.
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5/27. The risks of overly effective postoperative epidural analgesia.

    Continuous epidural analgesia is frequently used to provide supplemental postoperative pain control. Epidural analgesia has the potential to mask the early symptoms that signal impending complications after even routine surgical procedures. We report a case of sciatic nerve palsy following epidural anesthesia after an uncomplicated leg length correction. Good epidural anesthesia may remove a patient's normal protective sensation, allowing pain and other signs of nerve compression from prolonged unchanged postoperative positioning to go unnoticed. This case highlights the need for heightened awareness of potential neurologic compromise in the setting of epidural analgesia. We recommend closely monitoring the patient's neurologic condition and frequently evaluating the patient's position in bed.
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6/27. superior mesenteric artery syndrome as a complication in hip spica application for immobilization: report of a case.

    A 10-year-old girl who had a pelvic and femoral osteotomy for congenital dislocation of her right hip was immobilized with a hip spica. On the 28th postoperative day, she had upper abdominal pain, distention and bilious vomiting. An upper GI series demonstrated complete obstruction of the duodenum at the third portion of the duodenum in a supine position; however, the barium passed the obstruction site slowly when the patient assumed a lateral or prone position. She was successfully treated conservatively with nasogastric decompression, fluid replacement, proper positioning and hyperalimentation. superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare complication in patients immobilized in a body cast or hip spica. early diagnosis and proper treatment usually leads to an uneventful convalescence.
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7/27. Fat embolism as a complication of closed femoral shortening.

    Although closed femoral osteotomy for shortening or correction of deformity is not a new procedure, its popularity apparently is increasing. We have encountered a serious "biological" complication that should be considered before this technique is selected. Two patients, a 12-year-old girl and an 18-year-old man, developed findings consistent with the fat embolism syndrome after closed femoral shortening. We suggest consideration of postoperative monitoring with pulse oximetry of patients undergoing this procedure.
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8/27. Successful management of complications from distraction osteogenesis after osteosarcoma resection: a case report.

    We report a complicated case of osteosarcoma of the proximal tibia. A 15-year-old boy was referred to us and underwent distraction osteogenesis reconstruction. We administered preoperative chemotherapy for five cycles. Clinical response was determined to be complete by radiography. Marginal excision was then performed with preservation of the proximal tibial epiphysis. Metaphyseal reconstruction (type 2) was performed with distraction osteogenesis. Postoperative chemotherapy also was administered for five cycles. Two years later, the patient developed a deep infection. He underwent curettage and a pedicle peroneal flap transfer, which did not cure the infection. Infected tissues were excised, and shortening-distraction was carried out with the Ilizarov frame. The infection was cured; however, a leg length discrepancy and deformity resulted from frame instability. Four years after the initial operation, the patient fractured his reconstructed leg in a traffic accident. We performed osteosynthesis, deformity correction, and lengthening with the Ilizarov method. We were able to correct the defects using distraction osteogenesis, eventually restoring normal function. Epiphyseal preservation and reconstruction by distraction osteogenesis can provide an excellent outcome, resulting in a stable reconstruction that functionally restores the native limb. Distraction osteogenesis avoids some complications but may involve others, which require detection and appropriate management.
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9/27. rehabilitation after intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractor implantation: a report of two cases and a suggested therapy program.

    adult limb lengthening occurs via distraction osteogenesis and traditionally involves use of an external fixator. Complications after placement of hardware often disrupt rehabilitative efforts and hinder patients' progress. A completely internal limb-lengthening device has been developed and increasingly used, and it may more commonly be seen by a physiatrist in consultation for postoperative rehabilitation. We present two cases of patients who underwent implantation of the intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractor and required acute inpatient rehabilitation. One patient had previously suffered a malunion deformity with a resultant limb shortening, and the second patient was born with a congenital leg-length inequality. Both patients had successful femoral intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractor implantation and were transferred for acute inpatient rehabilitation. Distraction occurred daily, based on the patient's level of physical activity in therapy, and was measured using a hand-held monitor. Both patients were successfully discharged home, without complications throughout the hospital stay. knowledge of the theory and mechanism of action of the device is important to guide both the amount and type of therapy prescribed and to follow patient progress. We present general guidelines during the acute rehabilitation of a patient after intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractor surgery.
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10/27. Ilizarov external fixation. Surgical principles, nursing implications.

    The role of the perioperative nurse in caring for a patient with an innovative procedure such as the Ilizarov device is challenging. Because of the problem fracture, the patient usually has had multiple unsuccessful surgical experiences and may express considerable concern and anxiety. As perioperative patient advocates, nurses must encourage patients to be their own spokespersons and to ask questions when they do not understand. The patient advocacy role becomes even more important when the patient undergoes a new procedure. It is our experience with this procedure that both patients and professional staff have many questions during the postoperative period. It is essential that the perioperative nurse establish a communication climate among the patient and members of the interdisciplinary team that promotes collaboration and problem solving on behalf of the patient undergoing this unique surgical procedure.
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