Cases reported "Leg Length Inequality"

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1/53. Salvage of the lower leg using a reversed long free fibular flap.

    The advantages of end-to-side anastomoses have been well documented in microvascular surgery. The vessels of the fibular flap do not usually permit end-to-side anastomosis to recipient vessels in the proximal part of the lower leg because the pedicle length of the free fibular flap is usually too short. Therefore, vein grafts are used to elongate the vessels. If a harvested long free fibular flap that is used to bridge a massive defect of the tibia is reversed and placed into the medullary cavity of the tibia, the flap vessels can be anastomosed, using the end-to-side technique, to the recipient vessels without vein grafts in the distal part of the lower leg. Thus, the flap artery (the peroneal artery) fills in a retrograde fashion. The patient reported was reconstructed with a reversed long free fibular flap. The postoperative period was uneventful. The patient can stand and walk with a protective shoe 2 years postoperatively.
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keywords = tibia
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2/53. Spontaneous or traumatic premature closure of the tibial tubercle.

    A premature closure of the physis of the tibial tubercle in a young man has given rise to a shortening of the tibia, a patella alta and a reversed tibial slope of 20 degrees with clinical genu recurvatum. After a proximal open wedge tibial osteotomy all three postural deformities could be restored. The etiology of this complex deformity is discussed.
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ranking = 4
keywords = tibia
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3/53. Unilateral tibial hemimelia with leg length inequality and varus foot: external fixator treatment.

    A 15-year-old girl with type II unilateral hemimelia presented with a 13.5-cm shortening of her right leg, absence of the distal half of the tibia, tibiofibular synostosis, and medial dislocation of a cavus and varus foot. She was treated by means of an external fixator. The shortening was significantly corrected, and realignment of the foot with the limb was achieved. An arthrodesis of the talus and lower end of the fibula was carried out operatively and stabilized with an external fixator. In the same surgical procedure, we performed an osteotomy of the tibiofibular synostosis, and progressive distraction was done with another external fixator. We emphasize the advantages of progressive distraction for the correction of congenital deformities of the limbs.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = tibia
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4/53. Ilizarov lengthening in centralized fibula.

    Tibial hemimelia often produces major limb length problems (1,6,9,15) as well as foot deformity. The decision to perform reconstructive surgery depends on the expected leg-length discrepancy, the anomalies of the foot, and the status of the knee (4,6,8,15). Congenital bone deficiencies usually have a constant rate of growth inhibition (8), and leg lengthening is often associated with more complications (5,13). The complication rate is also increased with the increased leg-length discrepancy (5). In tibial hemimelia with functioning quadriceps (types I and II) and a functional foot, centralization of the fibula onto the talus and synostosis with the proximal tibia is an accepted reconstructive procedure (1,4,6,7,9,15). However, when the transplanted fibula produces a functional limb for the patient, the correction of leg-length inequality would be a challenge. This is a report of such a case.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tibia
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5/53. Anterolateral tibial bowing and duplication of the hallux: a rare but distinct entity with good prognosis.

    Congenital anterolateral bowing of the lower leg usually is a symptom of (impending) fracture because of congenital pseudarthrosis. This article reports a case of anterolateral bowing of the lower leg that is characterized by spontaneous correction and combination with duplication of the hallux. A review of the literature showed 10 comparable cases. This article is the first report on the magnetic imaging of this entity and describes its differentiation from congenital pseudarthrosis.
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ranking = 2
keywords = tibia
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6/53. Treatment of rigid hypertrophic posttraumatic pseudarthrosis of the tibia in children using distraction osteogenesis.

    Posttraumatic tibial pseudarthrosis is a relatively uncommon complication of tibia fractures in children. Although reported as a successful method of treating tibial nonunions in adults, distraction osteogenesis through a nonunion site via ring external fixation has not been described in children. The authors report three consecutive cases of distraction through an angulated, shortened, hypertrophic, posttraumatic nonunion to achieve successful union and concurrent correction of deformity. Distraction was carried out using a ring fixator with computer-guided correction. Union was achieved in each of the three patients with complete correction of deformity and length. Lengthening of 8 to 31 mm was achieved. The length of time in the external fixator ranged from 7 to 27 weeks. Pin tract infections developed in all patients; they were treated successfully using oral antibiotics. No deep infections or other significant complications developed. Each patient was followed up for at least 1 year.
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ranking = 3.5
keywords = tibia
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7/53. Lengthening of replanted or revascularized lower limbs: is length discrepancy a contraindication for limb salvage?

    Some replantation cases require substantial bone shortening for primary closure. Leg-length discrepancy can be restored by lengthening of the replanted or revascularized extremities. Between 1991 and 2000, four patients with four total and two subtotal below-knee amputations had replantation or revascularization for their severely damaged extremities. All of them had extensive debridement, vascular repair, bone shortening and nerve repair for sensibility of their soles. One of the replanted extremities failed and had to undergo below-knee amputation because of sepsis. No other infection or vascular complications were encountered following the replantations or revascularizations. After bony consolidation, four legs were lengthened; for elimination of length discrepancy in three cases, and for obtaining balanced body proportion in one case in which the other leg was also amputated. In all procedures, a unilateral dynamic axial external fixator was used. The lengthening was performed from the proximal tibial metaphysis, with a subperiosteal osteotomy. Evaluation of injury according to the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) would encourage the surgeon to avoid salvage surgery with a shortened extremity, because of the required debridement of soft tissue and bone. These authors think the amount of limb shortening is not a major criterion in evaluating a traumatic total or subtotal below-knee amputation for salvage replantation or revascularization. A knee that has stable joint motion and the possibility of preservation of sensibility of the sole broadens the scope of indications for limb salvage, even with deliberate shortening that can be restored by lengthening; length discrepancy is not a contraindication for limb salvage.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = tibia
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8/53. Telescoping vascularized fibular graft: a new method.

    The authors describe a case of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia treated with a telescoping vascularized fibular graft. The advantages of this new method are that bone union and leg-length discrepancy may be corrected simultaneously.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = tibia
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9/53. Juvenile Blount's disease: bilateral case with asynchronous onset.

    We encountered a rare case of bilateral juvenile Blount's disease diagnosed as unilateral at the onset. The patient was a 9-year-old girl who visited our outpatient clinic with pain and deformity in the left knee. Examination of the left knee showed severe varus deformity. Correction of the varus deformity and tibial shortness was carried out at the same time by the callotasis method using an Orthofix external fixator. During follow-up the varus deformity in her right knee gradually progressed. At 18 months after the initial surgery, the right varus deformity and tibial shortness were corrected at the same time by the callotasis method using an Orthofix external fixator; proximal epiphysiodesis was also performed. The coronal-plane alignment of both knees remains good. In cases with bilateral involvement of Blount's disease, the onset of the deformity is usually nearly synchronous. In some cases, however, it begins unilaterally, as with this patient, so it is essential to check both sides by means of tomography or magnetic resonance imaging and not just radiography. Moreover, we must be careful to plan the treatment in such a case so as to anticipate possible leg-length discrepancy problems.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tibia
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10/53. An unusual form of congenital anterolateral tibial angulation-the delta tibia.

    We report three infants with a poorly known form of congenital anterolateral angulation of the tibia with distinctive features seen on lateral roentgenograms. In these films the affected tibia appears to be divided into two segments, one proximal and the other distal, which taper as they approach each other at the site of the angulation, and end separately at the apex of the curve with an intervening radiolucent gap in the anterior tibial cortex. The two tibial segments are originally bridged and held firmly in that position by a well-defined triangular osseous structure located in the concavity of the tibial bow. It appears from the three cases reported in this paper and a few comparable cases in the literature that this form of tibial bowing is not prone to fracture followed by pseudoarthrosis and that it tends to improve (and resolve) spontaneously, with a resorption of the intramedullary bony structures at the apex of the curve resulting in the formation of a normal medullary cavity. A limb length discrepancy of varying degree is the main residual change of the anomaly.
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ranking = 7
keywords = tibia
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