Cases reported "Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous"

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1/146. Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis (report of 2 cases).

    leishmaniasis is an endemic, sporadic infection in many parts of the world. turkey is geographically unique in linking asia and europe. Of special interest is leishmaniasis, as various forms of this disease have long been reported in the surrounding regions. Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis are endemic in the western and southeastern parts of turkey, respectively. Here, we report a cutaneous and a visceral leishmaniasis case, to draw attention to the increase in the incidence of leishmaniasis in turkey. In the patient with cutaneous leishmaniasis, the ulcerative lesion on the cheek had persisted for two months before admittance to the hospital. Direct smears prepared from this lesion were negative for leishmania amastigotes whereas the promastigote forms were maintained in NNN (Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle) medium. The second patient was hospitalized with a prediagnosis of haematological malignancy, but the smears prepared from the bone marrow aspirates revealed leishmania amastigotes and promastigotes were seen on the smears from NNN cultures. These two reports mark the importance of inoculation of the specimens to NNN medium for the recovery of the promastigote forms. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis have become endemic in considerable number of foci in turkey, possibly due to the cessation of vector control programmes and increase in the agricultural and irrigation areas. These two reports also point out the increased prevalence of leishmaniasis in turkey after 1980's. ( info)

2/146. Cutaneous New World leishmaniasis-sporotrichosis coinfection: report of 3 cases.

    Three cases of coinfection with Leishmania and sporothrix spp in the same lesion are described. The patients had ulcers with erythematous borders and regional lymphadenopathy. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was accomplished by direct visualization of the amastigotes or culture of the promastigotes, or both. The diagnosis of sporotrichosis was proved in two cases by culture of sporothrix schenckii and by the histopathologic features in one case. All patients had a positive sporotrichin test. Two patients responded successfully to oral potassium iodide. One patient received oral itraconazole 100 mg/day because of intolerance to iodides and was cured. To our knowledge coinfection with Leishmania and sporothrix spp has not been reported. The use of empirical treatments for leishmaniasis such as poultices or puncturing of the lesion with thorns or woods splinters might introduce sporothrix and explain the coinfection. ( info)

3/146. Nephrotoxicity attributed to meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) in the treatment of generalized cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    BACKGROUND: Pentavalent antimonials have became of basic importance for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Their most severe side effects have been reported to be increased hepatic enzyme levels and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Nephrotoxicity has been rarely related. OBSERVATIONS: We report a case of generalized cutaneous leishmaniasis involving a 50-year old male patient who was submitted to treatment with meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime). He developed acute renal failure (ARF) due to acute tubular necrosis (ATN), followed by death after receiving a total of 53 ampoules of Glucantime. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment with Glucantime was responsible by ARF diagnosed in this patient. The previous urine osmolarity and serum creatinine levels were normal and the autopsy showed ATN. It should be pointed out if ARF may also be explained by massive deposits of immunocomplexes by leishmania antibodies and antigens due to the antigenic break by the antimonial compound, since our patient presented countless lesions covering the entire tegument, similar to the Hexheimer phenomenon, but at the autopsy no glomerular alterations were seen. ( info)

4/146. erysipeloid leishmaniasis: an unusual clinical presentation.

    Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis has many different clinical presentations. A rare and unusual presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis is the erysipeloid type. This clinical form is not only unusual in its clinical features but also in the specific category of patients it seems to afflict. In this report 5 Iranian patients, predominantly females, between 50 and 70 years of age, presented with infiltrative erythematous lesions covering the center of the face and resembling erysipelas. skin smears and/or skin biopsies revealed the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The reason for this type of presentation is unclear, although factors such as the specific species involved, the host's immune response, the hormonal changes encountered with increasing age, and the changes in skin barrier with ageing can be speculated as being important points in causing such an unusual presentation. ( info)

5/146. Unusual cutaneous lesions in two patients with visceral leishmaniasis and hiv infection.

    Two hiv infected patients with visceral leishmaniasis and unusual cutaneous lesions are described. The first patient developed linear brown macules containing Leishmania parasites on the fingers and palms of the hands. This patient never received highly active antiretroviral treatment and the visceral leishmaniasis could not be cured even with liposomal amphotericin. In the second patient, Leishmania parasites were present in a skin biopsy of a fibrous histiocytoma. After completing visceral leishmaniasis treatment, a discrete elevation of one of his tattoos was seen. A biopsy specimen of this tattoo revealed Leishmania amastigotes. In this patient the visceral leishmaniasis was finally cured with meglumine antimoniate, followed by pentacarinat isothianate as maintenance therapy in conjunction with highly active antiretroviral treatment. ( info)

6/146. A clinical and histopathological study of macular type of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is an uncommon sequel seen in patients with a previous attack of kala-azar (KA). It is characterized by hypopigmented macules and erythematous eruptions leading to the formation of papules, plaques and nodules. Little attention has been paid to the rare group of patients who present with only hypopigmented macules. The present study has described the distribution of lesions in macular PKDL and their histopathology. ( info)

7/146. Relapse of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a patient with an infected subcutaneous rheumatoid nodule.

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a protozoal infection generally considered to be limited to the skin. In israel, the disease is common in geographically defined areas and is caused predominantly by leishmania major. Sporotrichoid subcutaneous spread has been reported but is uncommon. We describe a patient with rheumatoid arthritis, treated with methotrexate and prednisone, in whom numerous rheumatoid nodules concomitant with cutaneous leishmaniasis were found, mimicking sporotrichoid spread of the disease. In a rheumatoid nodule that was examined by electron microscopy, Leishmania parasites were found at intracellular and extracellular locations. This observation supports the hypothesis that cutaneous leishmaniasis parasites persist after clinical cure of the disease and may re-emerge as a result of immunosuppression. ( info)

8/146. leishmania donovani invasion of the blood in a child with dermal leishmaniasis.

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is highly endemic in eastern Mediterranean countries. The causative organisms are leishmania tropica or leishmania major but, further west, variants of leishmania infantum frequently cause cutaneous leishmaniasis. We report a young girl from Beirut with an acute cutaneous leishmaniasis in whom the causative organism was cultured from both the skin lesion and the blood in the absence of any signs or symptoms typical of systemic involvement. The parasite was found to have a zymodeme typical of organisms belonging to the L. donovani complex. With the negative past history and in the absence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in her serum, post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis is an unlikely possibility, especially in view of the rarity of the complication in this part of the world. The infection was probably acquired during a recent visit to Aleppo, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is hyperendemic as similar cases have not been reported in Beirut. This case indicates the need to consider L. infantum strains in addition to L. tropica in cutaneous disease in Aleppo. This case also demonstrates that L. infantum can spread by the haematogenous route, even in a child without evidence of the immunosuppression, which usually predisposes to such spread. ( info)

9/146. Reactivation of cutaneous leishmaniasis after surgery.

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by a parasite from the genus Leishmania. Infection is transmitted to humans from the bite of sandflies. We describe an 85-year-old man who developed CL on his face after recent cutaneous surgery in that site. The case is also unusual because the most likely source of exposure to the infection occurred over 50 years previously. polymerase chain reaction, slit-skin smear, serology and the leishmanin test were not helpful in diagnosis, which was confirmed by histopathological demonstration of the parasite. ( info)

10/146. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with 20% paromomycin ointment.

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by flagellate protozoa of the genus Leishmania. In Mediterranean countries, the most common causative agents are Leishmania (L.) major, L. infantum and L. tropica. In croatia, cutaneous leishmaniasis is a rare disease, the last case being reported in 1988. Our patient was a 5-year-old boy with a left cheek skin lesion in the form of papule with central exulceration, hyperkeratotic crust and erythema of a 6-month duration. The diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis was based on history data (stay in the southernmost region of croatia and multiple mosquito bites), light microscopic histology (dense infiltrates of large histiocytes with extracellular bodies), and positive montenegro (leishmanin) test. A new therapy with aminosidine (paromomycin), an aminoglycoside antibiotic, in the form of ointment at a concentration of 20%, was for the first time used in croatia. Four-week therapy resulted in complete regression of the skin lesions with residual hyperpigmentation. During therapy, no local or systemic side effects were observed. Thus, topical therapy with paromomycin could be considered an efficient therapeutic alternative in the management of cutaneous leishmaniasis. ( info)
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