Cases reported "Leprosy, Lepromatous"

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1/7. Epithelioid granuloma in the iris of a lepromatous leprosy patient; an unusual finding.

    This case report depicts a case of histopathologically confirmed polar lepromatous (LL) leprosy with a bacterial index of 4 . He experienced recurrent episodes of erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) in the first 5 years after diagnosis. Skin smears became negative after 6 years of dapsone monotherapy and have remained negative since that time. At 23 years after diagnosis, the patient had developed cataracts and underwent intracapsular cataract extractions with broad-based iridectomies. In one of the iris specimens, histopathologic examination revealed a focal granuloma composed of epithelioid cells. Subsequently a lepromin skin test showed a positive Mitsuda reaction with a borderline tuberculoid histopathology. This clearly illustrates the immunological upgrading of a polar lepromatous patient, perceived first in the iris tissue.
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2/7. Sequential erythema nodosum leprosum and reversal reaction with similar lesional cytokine mRNA patterns in a borderline leprosy patient.

    We compare the clinical and histological data with the immunological status of a borderline leprosy patient who experienced an erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) reaction followed by a reversal reaction (RR) after 12 weeks of anti-inflammatory treatment (pentoxifylline, PTX, 1200 mg daily). Skin biopsies, serum and blood samples were collected sequentially during the reactional episodes. At the outset of RR, the patient's lymphocytes secreted interferon (IFN) -gamma and there was a positive lymphoproliferative test in response to mycobacterium leprae, which had been absent during ENL. The lepromin reaction reversed from negative (0 mm) at diagnosis, to positive (3 mm) 3 months after the development of RR. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) -alpha levels in the serum decreased after 1 week of treatment and increased slightly thereafter. The immunohistochemical data for ENL showed a diffuse dermal and hypodermal infiltrate composed of mononuclear cells and neutrophils, while RR was characterized by an epithelioid granulomatous infiltrate with a marked presence of gammadelta T cells. reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed a mixed cytokine profile characterized by the expression of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, interleukin (IL) -6, IL-10 and IL-12 mRNA in the skin, which persisted throughout the development of ENL and RR lesions. IL-4 mRNA, first detected after 7 days of PTX treatment, was still present during RR. The results suggest the emergence of an initial Th0-like cytokine profile in ENL, typical of a state of immunoactivation, before conditions optimal for the appearance of an antigen-specific cell-mediated immune response and gammadelta T-cell migration are created.
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3/7. Reversal reaction and Mitsuda conversion in polar lepromatous leprosy: a case report.

    A 22-year-old male polar lepromatous leprosy patient who became Mitsuda positive after 36 months of multidrug therapy (MDT) is reported. Lepromatous leprosy (LL) is a state of specific immunosuppression and is invariably irreversible. The finding of Mitsuda positivity in histopathologically proven polar lepromatous leprosy is extremely uncommon, and conversion of lepromin status following MDT has not so far been reported. This case reports confirms the observations made by Waters et al. regarding lepromin conversion in lepromatous patients.
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4/7. Lepromatous leprosy: a review and case report.

    leprosy is a contagious and chronic systemic granulomatous disease caused by mycobacterium leprae (Hansen s bacillus). It is transmitted from person to person and has a long incubation period (between two and six years). The disease presents polar clinical forms (the multibacillary lepromatous leprosy and the paucibacillary tuberculoid leprosy), as well as other intermediate forms with hybrid characteristics. oral manifestations usually appear in lepromatous leprosy and occur in 20-60% of cases. They may take the form of multiple nodules (lepromas) that progress to necrosis and ulceration. The ulcers are slow to heal, and produce atrophic scarring or even tissue destruction. The lesions are usually located on the hard and soft palate, in the uvula, on the underside of the tongue, and on the lips and gums. There may also be destruction of the anterior maxilla and loss of teeth. The diagnosis, based on clinical suspicion, is confirmed through bacteriological and histopathological analyses, as well as by means of the lepromin test (intradermal reaction that is usually negative in lepromatous leprosy form and positive in the tuberculoid form). The differential diagnosis includes systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, cutaneous leishmaniasis and other skin diseases, tertiary syphilis, lymphomas, systemic mycosis, traumatic lesions and malignant neoplasias, among other disorders. Treatment is difficult as it must be continued for long periods, requires several drugs with adverse effects and proves very expensive, particularly for less developed countries. The most commonly used drugs are dapsone, rifampicin and clofazimine. quinolones, such as ofloxacin and pefloxacin, as well as some macrolides, such as clarithromycin and minocyclin, are also effective. The present case report describes a patient with lepromatous leprosy acquired within a contagious family setting during childhood and adolescence.
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5/7. Localized borderline lepromatous leprosy.

    A 48-year-old soldier presented with 3 small leprosy lesions localized over the flexor area of the forearm. There was no nerve thickening and clinically the lesions looked like borderline-tuberculoid leprosy. However, these lesions demonstrated a bacteriological index (BI) of 4 while no acid-fast bacilli (AFB) could be demonstrated from any other site of the body. A lepromin test was negative. Histologically evidence of borderline lepromatous leprosy was conspicuous. The case was diagnosed as localized borderline lepromatous-leprosy and treated with multidrug therapy. After 1 year of treatment, the lesions regressed, a lepromin test was positive (5 mm) and the BI from the lesions fell to 1 .
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6/7. Tuberculoid relapse in lepromatous leprosy.

    It is commonly accepted that the attainment of bacteriological negativity fails to restore the immune state of leprosy patients who have downgraded to lepromatous. We report six patients who had been lepromatous (LLs), and who, after many years of chemotherapy and bacteriological negativity, were found upon relapse to have upgraded to borderline-tuberculoid (BT). Five had become Mitsuda lepromin positive. The relapses could be accounted for by proven or suspected dapsone resistance. The upgrading was associated with minimal signs of reaction, which was attributed to the low level of antigen in the almost resolved lesions. The manner of development of the new high immune lesions resembled the onset of a primary infection, clinically and histologically. The development of a positive Mitsuda reaction in longstanding LL leprosy is not necessarily an indication of cure.
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7/7. Localized lepromatous leprosy and its response to chemo-immunotherapy.

    BACKGROUND. This is an unusual presentation of lepromatous leprosy (LL) in a young boy, 12 years of age. The study forms part of a large scale immunotherapeutic trial with Mycobacterium w (M.w) antileprosy vaccine. The trial is being conducted in two major hospitals in New Delhi, india. MATERIALS AND methods. This patient presented with three lesions: one on each forearm and the third on the left leg. He was classified initially as borderline tuberculoid leprosy. Slit-skin smears and histopathology from the lesions proved the diagnosis to be lepromatous leprosy with a bacterial index (BI) 6 . The initial lepromin test was negative. The patient was treated with chemo-immunotherapy (standard multidrug therapy and immunotherapy with Mycobacterium w vaccine). RESULTS. Investigations after 1 year (15 months) of multi-drug therapy and three doses of vaccine, showed a remarkable fall in the BI from 6 to 0 in the lesions, a lepromin positivity of 5 mm, and a histological upgrading from lepromatous leprosy to borderline tuberculoid. Immunologic studies at 15 months revealed a good LTT response and high levels of cytokines, specifically IL-2 and IFN-gamma. CONCLUSIONS. This report presents an LL patient with disease limited to a few sites. It stresses the importance of slit-smear and biopsy in all patients of leprosy, and it highlights the upgrading observed on administration of chemo-immunotherapy.
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