Cases reported "leukemia, b-cell"

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1/58. B cell prolymphocytic leukaemia (B-PLL) with complex karyotype and concurrent abnormalities of the p53 and c-MYC gene.

    We report the cytogenetic, molecular and biological characterization of a case of B-PLL with a complex karyotype and concurrent abnormalities on the p53 and c-MYC genes. Conventional cytogenetics suggested that both 17q arms were translocated to chromosomes 1q and 14p, respectively, whereas both 17p arms were not identified. In addition, a Burkitt's-like variant translocation t(2;8) was found. Study of loss of heterozygosity at 17p13 and p53 direct sequencing demonstrated the presence of only one copy of the p53 gene. A 27 bp deletion in exon 8 that resulted in the expression of a p53 protein lacking nine amino acids from the dna binding region was also found. To confirm the presence of one copy of the p53 gene and localize it, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) studies using a p53 gene probe was performed. Only one signal of p53 was visualized. Moreover, the DAPI profile of the chromosome containing the hybridization spot for the p53 probe did correspond to the cytogenetic marker identified as der(14)t(14;17). Whole chromosome 14 paint, centromere-specific for chromosome 17 and p53 gene probes were cohybridized to the preparations. This demonstrated that the der(14) contained the 17 centromere and distally the p53 gene suggesting that the der(14) contained the short arm of chromosome 17 with the breakpoint occurring in the long arm. FISH studies confirmed the involvement of c-MYC and KAPPA in the t(2;8) translocation. To our knowledge, this is the first case of B-PLL with inactivation of the p53 gene by mutation together with a Burkitt's-like t(2;8) translocation involving the c-MYC gene. The cooperation of these genes may have conferred a growth advantage which was critical in the development of this aggressive form of B-PLL. ( info)

2/58. Rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) administration in a young patient with resistant B-prolymphocytic leukemia.

    Following the administration of the human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody IDEC-C2B8 (rituximab), a 31-year-old woman with B-prolymphocytic leukemia, who had been resistant to CHOP, fludarabine, pentostatin and 2-CdA, achieved complete remission. Rituximab was administered intravenously once a week for 4 weeks. The patient only had mild but tolerable side effects during the first cycle of therapy. She remains in complete remission 8 months following the discontinuation of treatment. ( info)

3/58. Co-existence of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and B hairy cell leukemia.

    A primary cutaneous form of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) and a low grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that was classified as a variant of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) were simultaneously diagnosed in a 79-year-old woman by both phenotypic and genotypic analyses. The coexistence of a T- and B-cell lymphoma in the same patient is rare, and, to our knowledge, this particular association has not been previously described. The patient was referred to our Department for evaluation of multiple cutaneous itchy, reddish plaques; laboratory analyses disclosed a lymphocytosis, that presented 6 years earlier. A bone marrow aspirate showed a 50% B-cell interstitial infiltrate, while a skin biopsy surprisingly revealed a PTCL. Clonality of both neoplastic processes was assessed by Southern blot analysis. The indolent clinical course of the cutaneous disease, and the low and stable number of circulating neoplastic T cells supported the diagnosis of a mycosis fungoides (MF)-like PTCL. Possible oncogenic events and/or putative underlying viral infections which could have played a role in the occurrence of B- and T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in the same patient are discussed. ( info)

4/58. Mantle cell lymphoma, in leukaemic phase with prominent splenomegaly. A report of eight cases with similar clinical presentation and aggressive outcome.

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a well-defined peripheral B-cell lymphoma usually diagnosed upon peripheral lymph node biopsy. We report eight cases of peripheral B-cell leukaemia that demonstrate presumptive evidence of mantle cell characteristics. The patients had a median age of 68.5 years, and five were male. All presented with an enlarged spleen without any peripheral lymphadenopathies, and they were leukaemic at presentation (median lymphocytosis, 38x10(9)/l). Morphological diagnosis of MCL was very difficult in five cases but easier in three because we were able to analyse either pre- or post-mortem lymph nodes and spleen. The immunophenotype of blood lymphocytosis using flow cytometry, the presence of a t(11;14)(q13;q32) and a cyclin d1 expression by leukaemic cells all fit with the diagnosis of MCL. All patients progressed and died with a median overall survival of 8 months. Multifocal areas of transformation in blastoid or large cell variants were observed in the three autopsied patients. In summary, one should consider the diagnosis of MCL at presentation in leukaemic phase even in the absence of peripheral adenopathies. ( info)

5/58. Massive immune haemolysis after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation with minor ABO incompatibility.

    Immune haemolysis as a result of minor ABO incompatibility is an underappreciated complication of haematopoietic transplantation. The increased lymphoid content of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplants may increase the incidence and severity of this event. We observed massive immune haemolysis in 3 out of 10 consecutive patients undergoing HLA-identical, related-donor PBSC transplants with minor ABO incompatibility. Non-ablative conditioning had been given in 9 of these 10 cases, including two with haemolysis. Cyclosporin alone was used as prophylaxis against graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD). Catastrophic haemolysis of 78% of the circulating red cell mass led to anoxic death in the first case seen, but severe consequences were avoided by early, vigorous donor-compatible red cell transfusions in the subsequent two cases. Haemolysis began 7-11 d after PBSC infusion and all patients with haemolysis had a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT), with eluate reactivity against the relevant recipient antigen. However, neither the intensity of the DAT, the donor isohaemagglutinin titre, nor other factors could reliably be used to predict the occurrence of haemolysis. Our data indicate that haemolysis may be frequent and severe after transplantation of minor ABO-incompatible PBSCs when utilizing cyclosporin alone to prevent GVHD. Meticulous clinical monitoring and early, vigorous donor-compatible red cell transfusions should be practiced in all instances. ( info)

6/58. polymyositis--an unusual manifestation of chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    polymyositis is a rare autoimmune manifestation of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) characterized by muscle pain, weakness, and an increase in muscle-related enzymes that responds well to treatment with immunosuppressive agents such as steroids and cyclosporine. We describe a case in which polymyositis was the main manifestation of chronic GVHD that occurred 12 months after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). The polymyositis responded well to treatment with steroids and cyclosporine, with no relapse of symptoms on tapering of the medication. ( info)

7/58. Common germinal-center B-cell origin of the malignant cells in two composite lymphomas, involving classical Hodgkin's disease and either follicular lymphoma or B-CLL.

    BACKGROUND: Classical Hodgkin's disease (HD) and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) occasionally occur in the same patient. Such composite lymphomas represent interesting models to study the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphomas and the relationship between HD and B-cell NHL. MATERIALS AND methods: We analyzed two composite lymphomas (a combination of classical HD with follicular lymphoma [FL] and a combination of classical HD with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia [B-CLL]) by micromanipulation of single cells from tissue sections and amplification of immunoglobulin V region genes for the clonal relationship of the tumor cells. RESULTS: In both cases, clonally related variable (V) genes with both shared as well as distinct somatic mutations were obtained from the two lymphomas, showing that in each of the cases the distinct tumor cells were members of a common germinal center (GC) B-cell clone. FL cells from two different lymph nodes of patient 1 showed a similar mutation pattern, suggesting that infiltration of these lymph nodes by tumor cells was not restricted to a particular FL cell or subclone. In the FL, a single cell was identified with a mutation signature indicating that premalignant cells can persist in the tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The cases presented here further underline the close relationship between HD and B-cell NHL and the role of the GC in lymphomagenesis. Whereas the latter was already suggested for FL and HD, the present study indicates that also in the B-CLL subset characterized by mutated Ig genes, important steps in malignant transformation happen in the GC, and that HRS cells can derive from CD5-positive B cells. ( info)

8/58. Reactivation of latently infected hepatitis b virus in a leukemia patient with antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen.

    A 66-year-old man with chronic B-cell leukemia who had antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) but not hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) suffered from lethal hepatitis caused by hepatitis b virus (HBV) reactivation. He initially lacked circulating viral genomes in his sera and did not have a past history of liver dysfunction. In this patient, the immunosuppressive condition introduced by disease progression of leukemia induced reactivation of dormant HBV, and the withdrawal of chemotherapy resulted in fatal liver failure. Mutation-specific assay based on competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analyses revealed the predominant reactivation of an HBV strain with missence mutation (point mutation G-to-A at nucleotide 1896) in the precore regions, as well as point mutations in the core promoter regions. Therefore, it is important to note the risk of HBV reactivation, with resulting lethal hepatic failure, in anti-HBc-positive healthy individuals, even when they lack HBsAg. who receive immunomodulating therapy. ( info)

9/58. skin and gingival lesions in a young woman with B-prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL).

    B-PLL has not been often associated with diffuse skin involvement or oral lesions. We present a 32 year-old woman in whom skin and gingival manifestations were the prominent clinical signs of disease relapse. ( info)

10/58. Langerhans cell histiocytosis following childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal proliferation of langerhans cells of unknown etiology that results in a range of clinical manifestations. LCH has been known to be associated with a variety of malignant diseases. A 7-year-old boy was treated for standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at age 2 years, on a Children's Cancer Group chemotherapy protocol for 3 years and developed LCH 2 years after completion of chemotherapy. The case and a review of literature on the association of LCH and ALL are presented. ( info)
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