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1/15. Acute basophilic leukemia presenting with abnormal liver function tests and the absence of blast cells in the peripheral blood.

    Acute basophilic leukemia is an uncommon form of acute leukemia, rarely occurring as a de novo disease. We describe a case of de novo acute basophilic leukemia occurring in a 47-year-old man who presented with abnormal liver function tests in the absence of leukemic infiltration of the liver. We postulate that this presentation occurred as a consequence of pathophysiological features of the malignant basophilic blast cells. ( info)

2/15. Acute basophilic leukemia.

    Acute basophilic leukemia has recently been included into a revised classification of acute leukemias proposed by the WHO panel. Due to the rarity of the disease, consistent diagnostic criteria are lacking. We report on two cases of acute basophilic leukemia that occurred in our department during the last 10 yr. We focus on their clinical, morphological and cytogenetic presentation. Both patients were >60 yr of age, and presented in good clinical condition with alterations to their full blood count. None had cutaneous symptoms such as erythema or urticaria. Cytogenetic analyses in the first patient showed a normal karyotype, while the second displayed a translocation t(2;6); (q23?4;p22?3), as well as a del (12)(p11). Earlier observations have linked bone marrow basophilia either to a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 12 (p11-13), to translocations involving the long arm of chomosome 6 at 6q23 or to the translocation t(6,9); (p23;q34). However, other translocations involving chromosome 6p23 have not been described before. Treatment of our patients consisted of supportive treatment in the one with normal karyotype and aggressive chemotherapy in the other patient. Both patients died within one year after diagnosis due to progressive or recurrent leukemia. ( info)

3/15. Acute basophilic leukemia lacking basophil-specific antigens: the importance of cytokine receptor expression in differential diagnosis.

    De novo acute basophilic leukemia (ABL) is a rare form of myeloid leukemia. The low prevalence of ABL makes it difficult to define its clinical characteristics and to establish an effective therapeutic protocol. We present here a case of de novo ABL in a 64-year-old Japanese man. The diagnosis of ABL depended on the following: (1) metachromasia with toluidine blue stain, (2) intracytoplasmic theta granules identified by electron microscopy, and (3) findings obtained from extensive immunophenotypic analysis. Although blast cells lacked basophil-specific antigens such as CDw17, CD88, and FcepsilonRI, an expression profile of cytokine receptors including CD116 (GM-CSF receptor), CD117 (c-kit), and CD123 (IL-3 receptor alpha) helped to define the cellular lineage in our case. The patient achieved complete remission with intensive chemotherapy composed of idarubicin and cytosine arabinoside and was disease free during the following 30 months. We propose that immunophenotyping, especially focusing on cytokine receptors, is useful in diagnosing ABL. ( info)

4/15. Chronic basophilic leukemia: a distinct clinico-pathologic entity?

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to better define a group of rare and poorly understood myeloproliferative disorders that are characterized by prominent chronic basophilia in the absence of the philadelphia chromosome (Ph) or its molecular equivalent. methods: We screened our institution's electronic database from 1975 onwards, and identified four such cases. Clinical data and bone marrow pathology were carefully reviewed for these patients. RESULTS: Two patients had prominent manifestations of basophil mediator-release and another presented with pituitary dysfunction. bone marrow examination uniformly revealed trilineage hyperplasia with basophilia and eosinophilia, dysplastic megakaryocytic hyperplasia, and the absence of megakaryocyte clustering. An abnormal pattern of atypical mast cells was noted in two cases. While disease palliation was effectively achieved with hydroxyurea for one patient, transformation to acute myeloid leukemia was eventually observed in this case. Another patient has achieved long-term disease-free survival after undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations reveal a striking pathologic similarity among all four cases, and suggest this disease, which may be aggressive with the potential to transform into acute leukemia, to possibly represent a distinct clinico-pathologic entity (chronic basophilic leukemia). ( info)

5/15. Acute basophilic leukemia with t(8;21).

    Acute basophilic leukemia (ABL) is a rare form of leukemia. The diagnostic criteria have recently been described. Morphological evidence for basophilic lineage is required for its classification. However the criteria for remission status and standard therapy is not established. Here we have described an atypical case of ABL and reviewed the literature to high light issues regarding diagnosis and management, which need further discussion. ( info)

6/15. Acute basophilic leukemia: case report.

    The term "basophilic leukemia" has been in use for 75 years. However, consistent diagnostic criteria are lacking. This is due to the rarity of the disease and to the routine unavailability of special tests that are often required to confirm a diagnosis. We report an unusual case of acute basophilic leukemia in a child who was referred to our Center, arriving with partially treated acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Basophilic differentiation on light microscopy was evident from the coarse basophilic granules in blasts, a progressive maturation of blasts toward basophils, and toluidine positivity on cytochemistry. Blasts showed a myeloid immunophenotype (CD13 , CD33 , CD117 ) with a characteristic dual positivity for CD34 and CD25, highly suggestive of basophilic nature of the blasts. Conventional cytogenetic studies revealed translocation t(8;21)(q22;q22). A diagnosis of acute basophilic leukemia with t(8;21) was made. review of pre-therapy slides showed features consistent with AML-M2 with basophilia. There were no basophilic blasts. With these features, a diagnosis of acute basophilic leukemia secondary to AML-M2 was made. In our patient, basophilic leukemia appears to have evolved from selective clonal proliferation of "basophil-committed blasts" during the course of the disease in a case of AML-M2 with basophilia. ( info)

7/15. primary myelofibrosis terminated in basophilic leukemia and successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Transformation of primary myelofibrosis (PMF) to basophilic leukemia is very rare. We report the case of a 44-year-old man who had had PMF for 6 years. His hematopoiesis deteriorated with marked splenomegaly, requiring multiple red blood cell and platelet transfusions. Soon after splenectomy, progressive basophilia (32.3 x 10(9)/L) developed, infiltrating the skin as well as the bone marrow. The patient underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with cells from an HLA-matched sibling. Despite the presence of hyperhistaminemia (99.1 ng/mL) after conditioning with cyclophosphamide, the pregrafting and post-grafting periods were uneventful. Prophylactic administration of both H1 and H2 receptor antagonists and sufficient hydration appeared to be important. ( info)

8/15. Imatinib resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia, BCR-ABL positive by chromosome and FISH analyses but negative by PCR, in a child progressing to acute basophilic leukemia: cytogenetic follow-up.

    The case of an 11-year-old child with adult-type chronic myeloid leukemia, Philadelphia (BCR-ABL) positive, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction negative for the major, minor, and micro breakpoints is presented. In the course of 3 years, the child failed to respond to treatment with hydroxyurea, refused all therapy for 6 months, was intolerant to alpha-interferon and progressed, while on imatinib, to acute basophilic leukemia. Subsequently he underwent successful bone marrow transplantation. A secondary cytogenetic clonal evolution, i(17q), developed during hydroxyurea treatment and a tertiary clonal evolution, 8, was detected during imatinib treatment. It is not clear to what extent the several factors (undefined BCR-ABL breakpoint, treatment avoidance, and initial treatment choices, alone or in combination) played a role in the imatinib relapse and resistance and in the disease progression. We conclude that close follow-up with frequent bone marrow sampling is crucial in order to monitor such patients for early relapse and prompt referral for bone marrow transplant. ( info)

9/15. Acute basophilic leukemia. A case report.

    A case of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) with primitive basophilic differentiation is presented. The patient had no antecedent history or concomitant presence of chronic myelogenous leukemia. The leukemic blasts constituted 83% of the peripheral white blood cells and more than 90% of the marrow nucleated cells. Cytoplasmic vacuoles were found in some leukemic cells. About half the leukemic cells showed a few azurophilic granules stained with Wright's stain, whereas exhibited a faint pinkish hue around the cells without cytoplasmic granules (water-soluble granules) by Riu's stain. The cytoplasmic granules failed to be stained with peroxidase but stained positively with toluidine blue. The former result could lead one to misclassify the case as lymphoid leukemia, but the characteristic finding of basophilic cells in Riu's stain should direct one to make the diagnosis of ANLL with basophilic differentiation. The cytochemical findings of this case suggested that basophilic differentiation should be considered when leukemic cells show peroxidase-negative granules. Riu's stain and toluidine blue stain are useful to make the correct diagnosis. ( info)

10/15. A case of basophilic leukemia bearing simultaneous translocations t(8;21) and t(9;22).

    We report a case of basophilic leukemia with simultaneous translocations of t(8;21) and t(9;22). The patient's clinical and hematologic findings were characteristic only of t(9;22) but not of t(8;21). This unusual cytogenetic phenomenon raises a challenge to the current concepts of primary chromosomal abnormalities in cancer. ( info)
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