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1/9. Acute myeloid leukemia presenting as splenic rupture.

    We describe a rare case of acute myeloid leukemia presenting primarily as an acute abdomen due to spontaneous splenic rupture in a 19 years male patient. He was treated with splenectomy after failure of conservative management for splenic preservation but later succumbed to an intracerebral haemorrhage.
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ranking = 1
keywords = leukemia, myeloid leukemia
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2/9. Acute abdomen as first symptom of acute leukemia.

    CASE REPORT: The authors presented a rare case of acute abdomen syndrome caused by the rupture of the corpus rubrum as the first symptom in a 35-years-old woman with the acute lymphatic leukemia. During the laparotomy is notice diffuse bleeding from under skin blood vessels and muscles. The blood was electrocoagulated and was sewn with catgut sutures. The right ruptured corpus rubrum was found from which fresh blood was leaking. The right ovary was carefully resected and sutured, and each ligature was bleeding. At the beginning of the surgery laboratory analysis results arrived which showed a high leukocytosis (28.0 x 10(9)/l) with sever thrombocytopenia (10 x 10(9)/l) and afibrinogenemia (0.1 g/l) with anemia (1.9 x 10(12)/l erythrocyte, haematocrit 0.24), which indicated leukemia with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (antithrombin iii levels 0.9 g/l, D-dimers 1989 micro g/l). RESULT. A year later she died with the picture of severe disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, agranulocytosis and septic condition with multiorganic failure.
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ranking = 1.1975392504749
keywords = leukemia
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3/9. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage for assessing acute abdomen in pediatric oncology and stem cell transplantation patients.

    Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) is a technique designed to sample the peritoneal cavity for evidence of catastrophic pathology, while incurring minimum risk. The authors describe two unstable pediatric patients, one with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and shock and one with fanconi anemia on high-frequency oscillation after stem cell transplantation, both presumed to have intra-abdominal perforation. DPL was uneventfully performed at the bedside in both patients. The authors suggest DPL be considered as an alternative to laparotomy in critically ill pediatric oncology and stem cell transplantation patients.
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ranking = 0.19958987507915
keywords = leukemia
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4/9. febrile neutropenia as the presenting sign of appendicitis in an adolescent with acute myelogenous leukemia.

    The diagnosis and management of a surgical abdomen in patients with acute leukemia is quite difficult because of the complications and treatment of disease itself. A 13-year-old boy with acute myelogenous leukemia developed 2 episodes of febrile neutropenia during induction therapy. The second one was treated with a 5-day course of parenteral antimicrobial therapy, but the patient then presented with right lower quadrant abdominal tenderness, guarding, and rebound tenderness. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed appendicitis. Conservative medical management was unsuccessful, and appendectomy was performed 5 days after appendicitis was diagnosed. The patient's clinical manifestations resolved 5 days later. The case illustrates that fever may be the first manifestation of appendicitis in a child with acute myelogenous leukaemia who is neutropenic. Surgery is acceptable as first-line treatment in such cases.
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ranking = 1.1975392504749
keywords = leukemia
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5/9. intestinal obstruction at the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a child.

    Surgical complications need not be fatal in acute leukemia. If these are promptly diagnosed and properly treated, the prognosis will improve. This report deals with a case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with an acute abdomen following surgery for choledochal cyst. A peripheral blood smear and examination of the bone marrow revealed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The child received transfusions of blood and platelets. Pretreatment with prednisolone was started as therapy for leukemia, and 2 days later, the patient underwent surgery. Therapy was continued until the general condition allowed a more aggressive form of treatment. Complete remission was achieved, and the patient is still in good health 48 months after diagnosis and 15 months after discontinuation of treatment. The favorable outcome in this child shows that prompt surgery is sometimes an essential step in the treatment of childhood leukemia.
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ranking = 1.7963088757123
keywords = leukemia
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6/9. Acute abdomen due to granulocytic sarcoma of the terminal ileum.

    A 57-year-old patient with chronic granulocytic leukemia in blast crisis and severe neutropenia is presented. This patient developed right sided peritonitis due to an isolated transmural granulocytic sarcoma of the terminal ileum. The affected segment was resected and the patient survived 4 more months. Thus, despite neutropenia, an aggressive surgical approach should be considered in a leukemic patient presenting with unexplained acute abdomen, since, as demonstrated here, a localized lesion which could not have otherwise been detected, was ultimately found and promptly resected.
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ranking = 0.19958987507915
keywords = leukemia
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7/9. Acute surgical abdomen caused by thrombocytopenia in patients with acute leukemia and multiple myeloma.

    One patient with multiple myeloma and four patients with acute leukemia presented with severe abdominal pain. Pertinent findings included numerous petechiae in the skin and buccal cavity, and diffuse abdominal guarding and tenderness, suggesting peritoneal involvement. Severe thrombocytopenia was found in all patients. laparotomy was performed in the patient with multiple myeloma, and revealed numerous petechiae throughout the peritoneum. All five patients responded to platelet transfusions with disappearance of the abdominal signs and symptoms. Severe thrombocytopenia should be considered among the causes of acute surgical abdomen in patients with malignant hematological disorders, and platelet transfusions should be administered before any surgical intervention.
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ranking = 0.99794937539573
keywords = leukemia
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8/9. Acute abdomen due to endometriosis as a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in the treatment of acute myelocytic leukemia.

    Acute abdominal pain is a frequent diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in hematologic patients. We report on the very rare case of organ endometriosis with acute abdominal symptoms in a 43-year-old female patient with AML-M5, starting 4 days after induction chemotherapy with idarubicin, ara-C, and etoposide. The patient presented with an acute abdomen with clinical findings of acute cholecystitis, subileus, and local pain in the right upper abdomen accompanied by severe diarrhea. Probably due to impaired intestinal resorption, menstrual bleeding occurred despite regular administration of lynestrenol. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen disclosed a tumor with poor echoes in the pouch of Douglas, a subcapsular splenic hemorrhage, and a thickened gallbladder wall with surrounding edema. A cystic adnex tumor was confirmed by endovaginal ultrasound. Based on history and the findings on ultrasound, an endometriosis was diagnosed, and the LHRH agonist (nafarelin) was administered nasally in combination with lynestrenol. Following this medication the abdominal pain ceased, supporting the diagnosis of endometriosis. Nasal administration of an LHRH agonist in the following cycles of chemotherapy was effective in preventing further abdominal discomfort and vaginal bleeding. LHRH agonists should be given to patients with known endometriosis before starting myeloablative chemotherapy to prevent painful hemorrhage from endometriosis.
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ranking = 0.79835950031659
keywords = leukemia
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9/9. pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis with abdominal free air in a 2-year-old girl after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    A 2-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) showing a t(4;11)(q21;q23) karyotype underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with the conditioning regimen of L-PAM (70 mg/m2/d for 3 days), busulfan (140 mg/m2/d for 2 days), and total body irradiation (12 Gy). On day 57, the patient developed pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) when she received cyclosporin A and corticosteroids for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Because of the presence of massive abdominal free air and the suspicion of peritonitis, she underwent surgical intervention, which, however, revealed neither intestinal perforation nor peritoneal infection. She recovered from PCI in 10 days with nasogastric suction, fasting, and systemic broad-spectrum antibiotics. PCI with massive abdominal free air after BMT should be manageable by conservative therapy alone.
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ranking = 0.19958987507915
keywords = leukemia
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