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1/7. CALM-AF10 fusion gene in leukemias: simple and inversion-associated translocation (10;11).

    A translocation (10;11)(p12;q14) was observed in two children, one with acute eosinophilic leukemia and the other with acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. The presence of CALM-AF10 fusion was ascertained by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed that AF10 gene splitting was associated with partial inversion of chromosome 11 in the first patient. In addition, FISH analysis also determined the orientation of the CALM gene, 5' telomere to 3' centromere on 11q. ( info)

2/7. Eosinophilic leukemia: a myeloproliferative disorder distinct from the hypereosinophilic syndrome.

    Evidence to support the existence of eosinophilic leukemia (EL) as an autonomous eosinophilic proliferation analogous to other myeloproliferative disorders has been somewhat confusing. Partially obscuring the existence of EL as a distinct entity is the proposal that EL merely represents a clinically aggressive form of hypereosinophilic syndrome. This report details the clinical and pathologic findings in a case of EL. The presence of trisomy 8 and trisomy 21; morphologic, cytochemical, and ultrastructural findings of granular abnormalities and nuclear/cytoplasmic dysynchrony; and a clinical course similar to that of other myeloproliferative disorders support the existence of EL as a rare but distinct entity within the spectrum of myeloproliferative diseases. ( info)

3/7. Acute eosinophilic leukemia in a patient with preexistent myelodysplastic syndrome.

    A case of acute eosinophilic leukemia (EoL) that occurred in a patient with preexistent myelodysplastic syndrome is reported. The patient was initially diagnosed as having refractory anemia (RA) on the basis of pancytopenia with dysplasia and chromosomal abnormalities. Two years later, he was readmitted because of progression of pancytopenia, and bone marrow and peripheral blood showed immature dysplastic eosinophils. Clonal assay of peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed autonomous growth of colony-forming unit eosinophils. Cytotoxic chemotherapy did not induce remission, and extensive myelofibrosis developed. cytogenetic analysis in the RA state showed 1p- and -7 whereas complicated abnormalities including 1p-, 3q- and 7p- dominated in the EoL state. ( info)

4/7. Acute myelogenous leukemia with eosinophilic differentiation and trisomy-1.

    A 50-year-old woman presented with anemia and eosinophilia. Her bone marrow biopsy, peripheral blood, and clinical features were consistent with a diagnosis of an evolving acute myelogenous leukemia. Striking dysplastic eosinophilic differentiation associated with trisomy-1 was evident, and eosinophil granule major basic protein was detected in involved tissue. trisomy-1 has not been previously reported in association with acute myelogenous leukemia showing eosinophilic differentiation. Intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy produced a short-lived clinical and cytogenetic remission. At autopsy multiple tumor nodules composed of dysplastic eosinophil precursors and myeloblasts were evident in multiple organs. ( info)

5/7. The eosinophilic variant of acute myelomonocytic leukemia developing as a secondary leukemia in a patient with mycosis fungoides.

    The eosinophilic variant of acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMML) is highly associated with characteristic abnormalities of chromosome 16. Leukemias developing secondary to chemotherapy frequently show abnormalities of chromosomes 5 and 7. This report describes a secondary AMML, eosinophilic variant (M4Eo), developing in a patient with coexistent mycosis fungoides who had received chemotherapy, including an alkylating agent, and showing characteristic abnormalities of both chromosomes 7 and 16. This is the first reported case of the M4Eo arising secondarily in a patient treated for another hematopoietic malignancy, and the second case of treatment-induced M4Eo to show coexistent abnormalities of chromosomes 7 and 16. Additional cytochemical, ultrastructural, and cell surface marker findings are described supporting malignant transformation of the eosinophilic cell line. ( info)

6/7. Eosinophilic leukaemia with trisomy 8 and double gammopathy.

    Prolonged eosinophilia of unknown cause has generally been described as the hypereosinophilic syndrome, and is characterised by peripheral blood and bone marrow infiltration and frequent multisystem disease. The nature of this disorder has been questioned, and the clinical features are quite variable, suggesting its heterogeneity and probable neoplastic aetiology. A patient with severe eosinophilia, karyotype abnormalities, serum gammopathy and massive organ disease is reported. The clinical course was aggressive despite cytoreduction of eosinophils and terminated in multisystem failure. These findings are consistent with a diagnosis of eosinophilic leukaemia, and it is suggested that chromosome and cell culture studies might be useful in the early diagnosis of this controversial entity. ( info)

7/7. A case of acute eosinophilic granulocytic leukemia with PML-RAR alpha fusion gene expression and response to all-trans retinoic acid.

    A typical case of eosinophilic granulocytic leukemia with PML-RAR alpha fusion gene expression is reported. The patient achieved complete remission after oral administration of all-trans retinoic acid without any exposure to cytotoxic agents. The facts strongly suggest that the genetic event occurred at the level of pluripotent stem cells. ( info)

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