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1/18. Disseminated cystic lymphangiomatosis presenting with acute abdomen: report of a case and review of the literature.

    lymphangioma is an uncommon tumor. Lymphangiomatosis, a benign tumor consisting of a cluster of dilated lymphatic channels, is very unusual. Most lymphangiomatoses are found in the neck and head area. Less than 5% are diagnosed intraabdominally and they are very infrequently encountered in the retroperitoneal area. Herein, we report a rare case of a 32 year-old woman who had disseminated intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal cystic lymphangiomatosis, which presented as acute abdomen. She received exploratory laparotomy due to the suspicion of malignancy, which was finally confirmed as cystic lymphangiomatosis. The clinical manifestations, imaging features, and management of this patient are discussed and compared with previous literature.
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ranking = 1
keywords = malignancy
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2/18. Accidentally delayed diagnosis of ruptured ovarian carcinoma in a young woman: a care report.

    Ovarian carcinoma commonly occurs in postmenopausal women and often presents with an insidious course. Acute abdomen is rarely an initial symptom. When these patients present with abdominal discomfort, the disease has already spread throughout the peritoneal cavity. We present a case of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a young woman who presented with acute abdomen and intra-abdominal bleeding. This 24-year-old woman was previously diagnosed with a ruptured left ovarian cystic tumor at a primary clinic. She underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy, followed by unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy at the clinic. No thorough examination of the peritoneal cavity was done during surgery. The diagnosis of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma was accidentally over-looked until one month later when she returned for routine follow-up. Upon referral to our clinic, the patient underwent a repeat laparotomy. The surgicopathologic diagnosis was intraperitoneal carcinomatosis stage IIIC that could not be excised completely, even though rigorous staging surgery including washing cytology, total abdominal hysterectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy, retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy, appendectomy, infracolic omentectomy and excision of any suspicious and removable lesions were performed. This case alerts us to consider the possibility of ovarian malignancy when a young woman presents with an acute abdomen secondary to ruptured ovarian cystic tumor and intraperitoneal hemorrhage. Careful preoperative preparation and thorough intrasurgical examination of the peritoneal cavity along with a prompt pathologic diagnosis of suspicious lesions will prevent missed diagnoses.
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ranking = 1
keywords = malignancy
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3/18. Ruptured metastatic ovarian carcinoma presenting as acute abdomen.

    Acute abdomen is a challenge to first-line physicians because of frequently missed diagnoses and potential follow-on legal problems. Improving the management of these patients is of paramount importance, not only for saving lives, but also for reducing untoward problems associated with improper management. We present a case of a patient with acute abdomen due to intraperitoneal hemorrhage secondary to rupture of an ovarian tumor. Following emergency surgery, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic ovarian carcinoma. Because of improper preparation of the gastrointestinal tract, the patient underwent repeat exploratory laparotomy for colon carcinoma. Although this situation did not affect the outcome of the patient in this case, we are concerned that the patient did not benefit from a single operation, with primary complete excision of the tumor plus a colostomy. The outcome of patients with pelvic malignancy, especially those with ovarian carcinoma, might be better if initial surgery achieved optimal tumor debulking. This is possible with good preoperative planning and preparation. We emphasize the importance of preoperative preparation in spite of urgently needed care. Furthermore, every first-line physician should communicate the possibility of malignancy to patients and their families.
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ranking = 2
keywords = malignancy
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4/18. Metastasis from small cell carcinoma of the lung producing acute appendicitis.

    A case of acute gangrenous appendicitis with perforation caused by metastatic small cell carcinoma of the lung in a 65 year old man is reported. The manifestation of appendicitis occurred more than 4 years after the diagnosis of the bronchogenic carcinoma. With longer survival of patients with disseminated tumors it is probable that new manifestations of those malignancies will be discovered. Acute appendicitis due to metastasis from a distant neoplasm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of right lower abdominal pain in the oncology patient.
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ranking = 0.99294673047235
keywords = neoplasm
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5/18. adult Wilms' tumor presenting as acute abdomen with elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase-4 and -5 isoenzymes: case report.

    Wilms' tumor, an embryonic neoplasm, is the most frequent renal tumor in childhood but is rare in adults. The prognosis of adult Wilms' tumor is worse than pediatric Wilms' tumor. The preoperative diagnosis of adult Wilms' tumor is extremely difficult to make because diagnostic imaging techniques, such as intravenous pyelography, computed tomography, ultrasound, renal angiography, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, only confirm the presence of a renal mass. Diagnosis usually depends on histological characteristics, such as the presence of blastemic, epithelial, and mesenchymal components. A 27-year-old female presented with acute abdomen and with elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) at 212 U/l (normal range: 47-140), and 2 of 5 LDH isoenzymes, namely LDH-4 at 13.6% (normal range: 6.8%-10.2%) and LDH-5 at 20% (normal range: 6.5%-9.7%). In this patient, stage I Wilms' tumor was managed by radical nephrectomy. The levels of LDH returned to its normal range. In conclusion, in cases of acute abdomen with a renal mass in young adults, the possibility of Wilms' tumor should be considered. serum LDH and its isoenzymes, LDH-4 and LDH-5, could be used as tumor markers for either differential diagnosis or monitoring the response of treatment.
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ranking = 0.99294673047235
keywords = neoplasm
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6/18. pseudomyxoma peritonei.

    pseudomyxoma peritonei is a relatively rare and poorly understood condition in which mucus accumulates within the peritoneal cavity. The presence of cells in the mucin, either inflammatory or neoplastic, distinguishes it from simple acellular mucus ascites caused by mucinous spillage. There is widespread seeding of the peritoneal and omental surfaces with a heavy cancerous glaze. This is principally a complication of borderline or malignant neoplasm of the ovary and/or appendix. This paper describes two cases of previously healthy women who both presented with an acute abdomen, and were diagnosed postoperatively with pseudomyxoma peritonei. In addition, literature on the clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, and treatment options has been briefly reviewed.
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ranking = 0.99294673047235
keywords = neoplasm
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7/18. Adnexal torsion presenting as an acute abdomen in a patient with bilateral cystic teratoma of the ovary.

    Benign cystic teratomas are the most common ovarian neoplasms in women. Teratomas are usually benign, unilateral, and most often found in young and premenopausal women. Most are 5 cm to 10 cm in diameter when diagnosed, and on sectioning, they usually contain thick sebaceous material, tangled hair, and various dermal structures. One of the major complications seen in cystic teratoma is torsion, a partial or complete twisting of the ovarian suspensary pedicle causing severe pain, nausea, and tissue necrosis. The patient described had bilateral cystic teratomas, one uncommonly large and torsed, causing an acute abdomen. Discussion includes the diagnosis, operative management, and postoperative findings.
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ranking = 0.99294673047235
keywords = neoplasm
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8/18. Cryptorchid testicular tumour presenting with torsion.

    An undescended, cryptorchid testis is predisposed to 3 to 40 times risk of malignancy. Torsion of a cryptorchid testis is more difficult to diagnose than a normally placed testis. We present a case of a 25-year-old man with acute abdomen due to the torsion of an intra-abdominal testis. Subsequent histopathology of the testis revealed seminoma, making this single testis the seat for triple pathology. Orchidectomy was done followed by radiotherapy. A follow-up of upto nine months showed no recurrence or metastases.
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ranking = 1
keywords = malignancy
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9/18. Small intestinal angiosarcoma leading to perforation and acute abdomen: a case report and review of the literature.

    A 76-year-old man presented to the emergency room with abdominal pain and fatigue. The patient had a history of gastrointestinal bleeding. An abdominal computed tomographic scan showed collections of free air in the abdomen with obstruction of the distal small intestine and multiple masses in the liver. laparotomy revealed a widespread malignant neoplasm in the abdomen, with multiple tumor nodules in the ileal wall, mesentery, and liver. The ileal wall was perforated within the area of one of the tumors. Pathologic examination of the lesion showed a neoplasm composed of solid sheets of spindle and undifferentiated cells, forming interlacing delicate vascular channels with atypical endothelial cells. The tumor cells were positive for the endothelial marker CD31, whereas reactivity for a broad panel of epithelial and other endothelial markers was negative. This case demonstrates that although angiosarcomas of the gastrointestinal tract are rare, they should be considered in cases of intestinal perforation or severe bleeding, especially in the elderly. A broad panel of immunochemical markers might be necessary to establish the pathologic diagnosis.
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ranking = 1.9858934609447
keywords = neoplasm
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10/18. Internal hemorrhage caused by a twisted malignant ovarian dysgerminoma: ultrasonographic findings of a rare case and review of the literature.

    PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer presents as an acute abdomen very rarely. The purpose of the study is the description of a right ovarian malignant dysgerminoma presenting as an abdominal emergency. CASE: A 16-year-old white female presented with acute abdominal pain in the right iliac fossa. On physical examination the abdomen was acute and a mass in the right lower abdomen was palpated. The patient was sexually active and bimanual gynecological examination revealed the presence of a large lobulated solid tumor in the position of the right adnexa. Ultrasound examination showed the presence of a large, multilobulated, heterogeneous, predominantly solid pelvic mass. color flow imaging showed intratumoral flow signals. The uterus and the left ovary had normal size and echo-texture. Fluid was found in the cul-de-sac and in Morisson's space. An immediate exploratory laparotomy exposed the presence of a twisted right ovarian mass and intraperitoneal hemorrhage. A superficial tumoral vessel actively bleeding was seen. Peritoneal fluid was obtained for cytology. The intra-abdominal hemorrhage ceased when the ovarian pedicle was clamped. The patient underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy and biopsy of the omentum. Pathologic analysis revealed a malignant dysgerminoma of the right ovary, expanding to the mesosalpinx. Cytology was positive for malignancy. Postoperative CT scan of the upper and lower abdomen was negative. The patient was assigned to FIGO Stage IIC and referred for platinum-based chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Ovarian malignant dysgerminoma may present as an acute abdomen because of torsion, passive blood congestion, rupture of superficial tumoral vessels and subsequent intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Ovarian dysgerminoma should be part of the differential diagnosis in a young woman with acute surgical abdomen and a solid heterogeneous pelvic mass detected by ultrasonographic scan.
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ranking = 1
keywords = malignancy
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