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1/379. Jumping translocations involving chromosome 1q in a patient with crohn disease and acute monocytic leukemia: a review of the literature on jumping translocations in hematological malignancies and crohn disease.

    A 36-year-old man with a 10-year history of crohn disease (CD) presented with gross hematuria and blasts in his peripheral blood. A chromosome analysis revealed one normal cell and 33 abnormal cells. The stem line was 47,XY, 8. The multiple side lines also had a jumping translocation between chromosome 1q31-32 and 4, 8, 10, 17, and 18 terminal regions. A cytogenetic, morphologic, and immunophenotypic analysis of a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy demonstrated acute myeloid leukemia of monocytic lineage, AML-M5b. In this paper are reviewed (a) the unusual and rare phenomenon of jumping translocations in hematological malignancies and (b) leukemia in CD. ( info)

2/379. Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in hematologic complete remission.

    The authors describe the cases of three patients affected by acute myeloid leukemia, in complete remission, who rapidly developed neurologic symptoms leading to death. Neither clinical characteristics, nor radiological or microbiological procedures, allowed an etiological diagnosis of the neurologic syndrome. Post-mortem examination of the brain showed both macroscopic and microscopic findings compatible with acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis. The difficulty in distinguishing this entity from other CNS disease-related complications (e.g. leukemia infiltration, drug toxicity, hemorrhages) should not lead to an underestimation of the true incidence of this complication. We believe that with more attention to the possibility of this complication there would probably be both a greater possibility of collecting clinical informations about the real impact of this dramatic disease and a stronger hope of finding the right treatment for it. ( info)

3/379. Congenital leukemia: successful treatment of a newborn with t(5;11)(q31;q23).

    A male neonate presented with a high white cell count, an 11q23 translocation, and M5b leukemia. He was treated at 3 days of age with intensive combination chemotherapy after progressing despite exchange transfusions. The patient achieved complete remission at 28 days of age. Therapy was completed at the age of 6 months. At the time of this report, the patient is 17 months old and remains in remission. Twenty-nine patients with congenital acute myeloid leukemia were also reviewed. Twenty of these patients received varying therapies. Ten of the treated patients achieved complete remission; two died of toxicity; and eight died of progressive disease. Two patients had a translocation affecting 11q23. Congenital leukemia is a rare and usually fatal condition in patients without down syndrome. The patient reported here shows that survival may be achieved with very intensive chemotherapy plus supportive care, despite extremely high white blood cell counts and unfavorable translocation. ( info)

4/379. Extramedullary tumor of monoblasts in the central nervous system: presenting feature of simultaneous bone marrow involvement by acute monocytic leukemia.

    An extramedullary tumor of monoblasts in the central nervous system has been described in the literature as a single case report, preceding the development of acute monocytic leukemia by 1 year. We report a previously undescribed presentation of acute monocytic leukemia as a left temporal lobe extra-axial mass with concomitant bone marrow involvement. We describe our findings in order to heighten awareness of this entity, which may be encountered in morphologic evaluation of central nervous system masses. ( info)

5/379. Acute myeloid leukemia with t(5;11): two case reports.

    A case of acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL) with t(5;11)(q31;q23) and a case of acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMMoL) with t(5;11)(q35;q13.1) are reported. The translocation between the long arm of chromosome 11q and that of chromosome 5q with leukemia have been rarely reported. Though breakpoint of both cases were subtlety different, they had morphologically monocytic character and showed hyperleukocytosis and chemoresistance. ( info)

6/379. Four cases of therapy-related leukemia.

    Combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy have contributed to the successful treatment of various cancer patients. But the development of second malignancies is an inevitable complication of long-term cytotoxic treatment. The most serious and frequent of such complications is acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Therapy-related leukemia is generally fatal. Since the number of patients exposed to chemotherapy is increasing each year, the clinical significance of this entity cannot be underestimated. There have been many investigations of therapy-related leukemia, but in korea published reports are rare. We describe four such cases, involving one older female with lung cancer and three children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and malignant lymphoma. alkylating agents were used for chemotherapy, and in one case, topoisomerase II inhibitor. Irrespective of the causative agents, the latency periods were relatively short, and despite induction chemotherapy in two, all survived for only a few months. During the follow-up of patients treated for primary malignancies, the possibility of therapy-related leukemia should always be borne in mind. ( info)

7/379. Transfusion-related acute lung injury in a patient with acute myelogenous leukaemia having anti-IgA2m(1) antibody.

    A 69-year-old man with acute myelogenous leukaemia developed a transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). He had anti-IgA2m(1) antibody rather than other antibodies that have previously been reported to be related to TRALI. This case suggests that the pre-existing condition of patients may be important in the development of TRALI. ( info)

8/379. Hepatosplenic candidiasis after neutropenic phase of acute leukaemia.

    Hepatosplenic candidiasis following granulocytopenic periods is a relatively recently recognised problem in immunocompromised patients, particularly in those with acute leukaemia. We present three patients in whom diagnosis of hepatosplenic candidiasis was suspected on the basis of ultrasonographic (US), computed tomographic (CT) findings and confirmed by laparoscopy and biopsy of liver lesions. All three patients were successfully treated briefly with amphotericin b, followed by a longer period of fluconazole. In one patient laparotomy and surgical evacuation of abscesses was performed. This condition could be more often recognised by careful follow-up of liver function test, c-reactive protein level, ultrasonography, CT and MRI after recovery from chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. ( info)

9/379. Translocation (15;17)(q22;q21) as a secondary chromosomal abnormality in a case of acute monoblastic leukemia with tetrasomy 8.

    We describe a case of acute monoblastic leukemia (AML M5a), originally presenting as granulocytic sarcoma of the testis, showing unusual cytogenetic abnormalities. tetrasomy 8 (primary) and t(15;17)(q22;q21) (secondary) were detected in bone marrow cells 6 months post-diagnosis, both by routine karyotype analysis and by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies on metaphases and interphase nuclei. Retrospectively, the same abnormalities were identified in the primary testicular lesion using interphase FISH. However, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) did not reveal the presence of a classic PML/RAR alpha fusion transcript. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to be reported in the literature of AML showing tetrasomy 8 in combination with secondary t(15;17). ( info)

10/379. mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation patients.

    Bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients are prone to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. mycobacterium tuberculosis infection can occur in these patients, but the incidence is lower than that of other infections. This report describes four patients with mycobacterium tuberculosis infection identified from 641 adult patients who received a BMT over a 12-year period (prevalence 0.6%). The pre-transplant diagnosis was AML in two patients and CML in the other two. Pre-transplant conditioning consisted of BU/CY in three patients and CY/TBI in one. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was MTX/CsA in three patients and T cell depletion of the graft in one patient. Sites of infection were lung (two), spine (one) and central nervous system (one). Onset of infection ranged from 120 days to 20 months post BMT. Two patients had co-existing CMV infection. One patient had graft failure. The two patients who received anti-tuberculous (TB) therapy recovered from the infection. Although the incidence of tuberculosis in BMT patients is not as high as in patients with solid organ transplants, late diagnosis due to the slow growth of the bacterium can lead to delay in instituting anti-TB therapy. A high index of suspicion should be maintained, particularly in endemic areas. ( info)
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