Cases reported "Leukemia, Myeloid"

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11/1183. Three AML patients with existing or pre-existing intracerebral granulocytic sarcomas who were successfully treated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantations.

    We report three acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients who developed intracerebral granulocytic sarcomas (GS) and were successfully treated with allogeneic BMT (allo-BMT). The diagnosis of one patient was AML M2 with myelofibrosis, and the other two patients were AML M4 with eosinophilia (AML M4 Eo), according to the FAB classification. Two patients first experienced a relapse in the brain that resulted in the formation of GS, followed by a relapse in the bone marrow. The remaining patient developed an optic nerve GS after suffering a bone marrow relapse. All three patients received irradiation for the GS and systemic chemotherapy before the allo-BMT. TBI was used for conditioning, and GVHD prophylaxis was with cyclosporine (CsA) and short-term MTX in all three cases. These patients are currently 9 to 37 months post-BMT without relapse. Thus, our experience suggests that allo-BMT is an effective treatment for AML patients with existing or pre-existing intracerebral GS.
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ranking = 1
keywords = leukemia
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12/1183. MSF (MLL septin-like fusion), a fusion partner gene of MLL, in a therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia with a t(11;17)(q23;q25).

    MLL (ALL1, Htrx, HRX), which is located on chromosome band 11q23, frequently is rearranged in patients with therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia who previously were treated with dna topoisomerase ii inhibitors. In this study, we have identified a fusion partner of MLL in a 10-year-old female who developed therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia 17 months after treatment for Hodgkin's disease. leukemia cells of this patient had a t(11;17)(q23;q25), which involved MLL as demonstrated by Southern blot analysis. The partner gene was cloned from cDNA of the leukemia cells by use of a combination of adapter reverse transcriptase-PCR, rapid amplification of 5' cDNA ends, and BLAST database analysis to identify expressed sequence tags. The full-length cDNA of 2.8 kb was found to be an additional member of the septin family, therefore it was named MSF (MLL septin-like fusion). Members of the septin family conserve the GTP binding domain, localize in the cytoplasm, and interact with cytoskeletal filaments. A major 4-kb transcript of MSF was expressed ubiquitously; a 1.7-kb transcript was found in most tissues. An additional 3-kb transcript was found only in hematopoietic tissues. By amplification with MLL exon 5 forward primer and reverse primers in MSF, the appropriately sized products were obtained. MSF is highly homologous to hCDCrel-1, which is a partner gene of MLL in leukemias with a t(11;22)(q23;q11.2). Further analysis of MSF may help to delineate the function of MLL partner genes in leukemia, particularly in therapy-related leukemia.
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ranking = 10
keywords = leukemia
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13/1183. Isolated recurrence of granulocytic sarcoma of the brain: successful treatment with surgical resection, intrathecal injection, irradiation and prophylactic systemic chemotherapy.

    We describe a 40-year-old male who developed an isolated recurrence of granulocytic sarcoma (GS) of the brain 2 years following successful treatment of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML; M2). Computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance (MR) images demonstrated a homogeneously enhanced tumor mass in the left temporal lobe and massive peritumoral edema. There was no evidence of relapse in the bone marrow. The patient underwent an emergency surgical resection of the tumor. Five courses of injection with cytarabine and prednisolone through an Ommaya reservoir and whole brain irradiation (total 40 Gy) were performed. Furthermore, prophylactic systemic chemotherapy with cytarabine and etoposide was added. He has been in complete remission for 21 months. Our results, together with other reported cases, indicate that a favorable outcome could be obtained by intensive and combined treatment for an isolated recurrence of GS of the brain if the bone marrow remained in complete remission.
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ranking = 1
keywords = leukemia
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14/1183. Lineage switch in childhood leukemia with monosomy 7 and reverse of lineage switch in severe combined immunodeficient mice.

    Morphophenotypic lineage switches occur in a small percentage of those with acute leukemia, and the underlying mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we attempted to induce a lineage switch in acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) with monosomy 7, whose lineage had switched from acute T-lymphocytic leukemia (T-ALL) during chemotherapy, in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Although the transplanted myeloid cells were engrafted in SCID mice without cytokine administration, T-ALL developed in SCID mice treated with recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or recombinant human interleukin 3. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the rearranged T-cell receptor gamma-chain (TCR-gamma) gene revealed that this lineage switch resulted from the selection of the T-lineage subclone in SCID mice, which had expanded at onset. In addition, we found that the T-lineage and myeloid cells belonged to the distinct subclones, which were different in TCR-gamma gene rearrangements, but were derived from a common clone with an identical N-ras gene mutation for both subclones. In in vitro cultures, only the myeloid subclone grew; the T-lineage subclone failed to grow even in the presence of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or recombinant human interleukin 3. These results suggested that the initial diagnostic T-lymphoid subclone, whose growth was dependent on these cytokines and the hematopoietic microenvironment, emerged from a bipotential T-lymphoid/myeloid leukemic stem cell, and further genetic event(s) induced the myeloid subclone, which grew independently of these cytokines and the microenvironment.
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ranking = 7
keywords = leukemia
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15/1183. Isolated tetrasomy 8 in minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M0).

    tetrasomy 8 as a sole anomaly in hematological disorders is relatively rare. To the best of our knowledge, only 19 such cases have been described in the literature to date. Of them, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 13 (M1, one; M2, three; M4, one; M5, eight), acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL) in one, myelodysplastic syndrome(MDS) in 3, polycythemia vera(PV) and myelofibrosis(MF), one case each. Their median survival was 20 weeks. Here, we report the first case of a 29-year-old man with minimally differentiated AML (AML-M0) displaying a tetrasomy 8 clone. immunophenotyping showed positivity with CD33, CD34 and intracellular MPO, but all lymphoid markers tested were negative. Conventional cytogenetics of bone marrow cells showed 84.9% of metaphases with tetrasomy 8 in addition to 15.1% with normal diploidy. However, fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) using a centromeric probe specific for chromosome 8 revealed trisomy 8 in 14.2% of interphase nuclei besides tetrasomy 8 in 82.4%. The patient died four weeks after diagnosis without therapy. In conclusion, these findings suggest that tetrasomy 8 is associated with a heterogeneous group of myeloid disorders and heralds a bad prognosis. It may be a consequence of clonal evolution of trisomy 8.
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ranking = 6
keywords = leukemia
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16/1183. Granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma) of the small intestine.

    Granulocytic sarcoma or Chloroma may develop before, at the time or after presentation of acute myeloid leukemia. We report the case of a 66-year old man presenting with intermittent abdominal pain during one month before developing a peritonitis due to perforation of small bowel followed by irreversible shock and death. Nearly the entire length of small bowel and bone marrow were infiltrated by giant promyelocytic cells. Abnormal circulating cells were never discovered. The literature is briefly reviewed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = leukemia
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17/1183. Cutaneous granulocytic sarcoma mimicking immunoblastic large cell lymphoma.

    A peculiar case of cutaneous granulocytic sarcoma without leukemic manifestation (so-called aleukemic leukemia cutis) that developed in the skin of the back of a 69-year-old man is reported. A skin biopsy specimen showed atypical cells with a prominent nucleolus proliferating around dermal blood vessels and along adnexa without epidermotropism. Atypical cells similar to those of the skin had infiltrated diffusely into the interfollicular area of an inguinal lymph node. Flow cytometric and immunohistochemical studies with a panel of monoclonal antibodies revealed neoplastic cells that had a biphasic phenotype of myeloid and T cell precursors. They expressed CD13, CD15, CD33, lysozyme, CD3epsilon, CD4, CD7 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT). Gene analysis showed no rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain or T cell receptor beta and gamma genes. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells exhibited a few intracytoplasmic electron-dense granules and well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum with an occasional whorling arrangement. The initial diagnosis was immunoblastic large cell lymphoma, and the patient was treated with six courses of ProMACE-CytaBOM. In spite of the high-grade cytological characteristics of this tumor, the patient has been free of disease for 5 years.
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ranking = 1.001152369415
keywords = leukemia, precursor
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18/1183. MR findings in ovarian granulocytic sarcoma.

    Granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma) is a mass of malignant myeloid precursor cells in an extramedullary location. The female genital tract, including the ovary, may be the first site for clinical manifestation of granulocytic sarcoma. The MR findings are reported in a case of ovarian granulocytic sarcoma which preceded acute myelogenous leukaemia. Granulocytic sarcoma shows a mixed cystic and solid adnexal mass with intermediate signal intensity on T1 weighted images and hypointensity on T2 weighted images.
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ranking = 0.0011523694150345
keywords = precursor
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19/1183. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type lymphoma of the gallbladder associated with acute myeloid leukemia.

    We describe a patient with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type lymphoma of the gallbladder who developed concurrent acute myeloid leukemia (M2). She was admitted because of progressive jaundice and underwent cholecystectomy. Histologic examination of the gallbladder showed diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells and a formed lymphoepithelial lesion. Because of progressive thrombocytopenia, a bone marrow tap was performed 25 days after the operation. Bone marrow contained 65.5% blasts, and was positive for peroxidase, CD33 and HLA-DR, and negative for lymphoid markers. We discuss the rare association of these disorders.
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ranking = 5
keywords = leukemia
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20/1183. Secondary myeloid/natural killer cell precursor acute leukemia following essential thrombocythemia.

    The de novo leukemic transformation of essential thrombocythemia is a rare event, and usually associated with previous treatments. We describe a patient who received treatments with nitrosourea for long-standing essential thrombocythemia and subsequently developed extramedullary tumors, tentatively diagnosed as lymphoblastic lymphoma. Combination chemotherapy was initially successful, but relapsed with marked bone marrow involvement. Surface marker analysis revealed that the tumor cells had CD5, CD7, CD33, CD34, and CD56 antigens but lacked other T-cell, and B-cell markers. Immunogenotypical studies revealed germline configurations for both T-cell receptors and immunoglobulin genes. These clinical and phenotypical features are consistent with a myeloid/natural killer cell precursor leukemia, a recently proposed distinct clinical entity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of secondary leukemia of myeloid/ natural killer cell precursor origin, and suggest that myeloid/natural killer cell precursor might be a potent target of therapy-related leukemia.
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ranking = 7.0080665859052
keywords = leukemia, precursor
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