Cases reported "Leukemia, Myeloid"

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1/1627. leukostasis followed by hemorrhage complicating the initiation of chemotherapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and hyperleukocytosis: a clinicopathologic report of four cases.

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary and cerebral leukostasis, or parenchymal hemorrhage in these organs, are well-known early complications developing in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), particularly when myelomonocytic features, hyperleukocytosis, and/or a coagulation disorder are initially present. Commonly, these complications arise during increasing leukocyte counts (WBCs). methods: The authors describe four patients with AML and hyperleukocytosis who developed leukostasis followed by parenchymal hemorrhage. RESULTS: Bleeding in all patients occurred while their WBCs were decreasing following cytosine-arabinoside chemotherapy, and in the absence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or severe thrombocytopenia. Radiologic and histopathologic findings underscoring possible mechanisms are presented in the article. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations of cell adhesion associated with chemotherapy-induced blast lysis or cellular differentiation are possible factors contributing to this particular sequence (cytosine arabinoside-based chemotherapy, leukostasis, and subsequent hemorrhage). Prophylactic measures for managing this early complication of AML treatment include leukapheresis to reduce the WBC prior to the initiation of chemotherapy. ( info)

2/1627. Primary myeloid leukemia presenting concomitantly with primary multiple myeloma: two cases and an update of the literature.

    We report one case of primary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and one case of refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-T) each presenting concomitantly with multiple myeloma, an unusual finding. The twin diagnoses in each patient were confirmed by cytochemical and immunohistochemical studies, and in one of our cases, by ultrastructural, flow cytometric, and molecular studies. The last three methods have not been previously used to document this phenomenon. ( info)

3/1627. Systemic candidiasis with candida vasculitis due to candida kruzei in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia.

    candida kruzei-related systemic infections are increasing in frequency, particularly in patients receiving prophylaxis with antifungal triazoles. A Caucasian male with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML M1) developed severe and persistent fever associated with a micropustular eruption scattered over the trunk and limbs during induction chemotherapy. blood cultures grew candida kruzei, and biopsies of the skin lesions revealed a candida vasculitis. He responded to high doses of liposomal amphotericin b and was discharged well from hospital. ( info)

4/1627. Long-term follow-up of relapsed acute leukemia treated with immunotherapy after allogeneic transplantation: the inseparability of graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-leukemia, and the problem of extramedullary relapse.

    Long-term outcome of 23 acute myeloid (AML, n=16) or lymphoblastic (ALL, n=7) leukemia patients who had received immunotherapy for treatment of persistent or recurrent disease 1.5-26 (median 4) months after allogeneic transplantation was studied to determine eventual survival. Immune manipulation comprised donor leukocyte infusion (n=18), interferon-alpha2b and/or interleukin-2 (n=15), and cyclosporine withdrawal (n=11) in various combinations. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developed in 12 patients. Thirteen of 20 evaluable patients responded; 6 relapsing again. Eight patients died of toxicity, and 10 of progressive disease at 3-206 weeks (median 11). Five patients (3 AML, 2 ALL) are alive in remission with GVHD 2-46 months (median 23) after immunotherapy with Karnofsky scores of 70-100% (median 80). The overall survival of the whole group is 1-206 weeks (median 12), with an actuarial survival of 22% at 2 years. The development of GVHD was associated with superior survival in multivariate analysis (P=.007). Seven patients received immunosuppression because of the severity of GVHD (grade III/IV acute or extensive chronic): 3 died of GVHD, 3 improved but relapsed concomitantly, and 1 is alive in remission with extensive chronic GVHD. Four episodes of extramedullary relapse (granulocytic sarcomas) were seen in 3 patients with AML whose marrow remained in remission. We conclude that GVHD appears to be inseparable from graft-versus-leukemia in relapsed acute leukemia patients undergoing immunotherapy with a high proportion of patients dying due to toxicity or progressive disease, and isolated extramedullary relapse seems to be unusually common. ( info)

5/1627. Post-transplant acute myeloid leukemia (PT-AML).

    Acute myeloid leukemia following organ transplantation (PT-AML) is a rare event with only a few published cases in the literature. We present three patients who developed AML (FAB M1, M5, M4) after renal, double lung or liver transplantation. Molecular analysis detected a t(9;11) in one patient and documented the recipient origin of AML in a second patient. All patients were treated with chemotherapy. immunosuppression was reduced to cyclosporin A (CsA) and prednisone in two patients and to prednisone alone in one patient. Two patients achieved a complete remission (CR), with a remission duration of 4.6 months in one patient, the other patient died from septicemia after 15.2 months in CR. One patient was refractory to chemotherapy and died from septicemia. This report together with the documented cases in the literature suggests that PT-AML (1) develops after a median interval of 5 years after transplantation with variable latency (range, <1-17 years); (2) is heterogeneous with respect to FAB classification; (3) shows chromosomal and molecular changes typical of therapy-related AML (t-AML: -7, 8, 11q23, inv16, t(15;17)); (4) standard chemotherapy is feasible after reduction of immunosuppression and produces a CR rate of 56% with a median remission duration of 4.6 months and an overall survival of 2.6 months; (5) the major complications are early death (25%), gram-negative septicemia, progressive disease or relapse. This review provides diagnostic and therapeutic experiences and guidelines for the management of this increasing group of post-transplant patients. ( info)

6/1627. MYC amplification in two further cases of acute myeloid leukemia with trisomy 4 and double minute chromosomes.

    We report two cases of trisomy 4 with double minute chromosomes (dmin): one in a woman with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), French-American-British subtype M2, the other in a man with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. In the former case, many cells without trisomy 4 but with dmin were present, a finding not observed in previously reported cases. In both cases, fluorescence in situ hybridization studies demonstrated the double minutes to be MYC amplicons. Ten cases of AML with trisomy 4 and dmin have now been described; in the five cases investigated, the dmin have been shown to be amplified MYC gene sequences. ( info)

7/1627. Cytology of ascitic fluid in a patient with granulocytic sarcoma (extramedullary myeloid tumor). A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Granulocytic sarcoma (GS) is the rare extramedullary manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia that may precede or be concurrent with leukemic infiltration of bone marrow or herald blastic transformation of a chronic myeloproliferative disorder. It has been found in most body sites and shows no age or sex predilection, necessitating its inclusion in the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated neoplasms. CASE: A 36-year-old female presented with a three-year history of abdominal pain, jaundice and fluctuating abdominal girth. Cytology of the ascitic fluid revealed myeloid cells of eosinophilic lineage at all stages of differentiation, with many undifferentiated cells. Immunohistochemical studies on a cell block confirmed the diagnosis of granulocytic sarcoma, which excluded the differential diagnoses of Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Langerhans histiocytosis. CONCLUSION: Granulocytic sarcoma may present as a serous effusion and can be diagnosed on a cytologic specimen. ( info)

8/1627. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder mimicking a nonspecific lymphocytic pleural effusion in a bone marrow transplant recipient. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Serous effusions are rare complications of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and result mainly from infections or tumor relapse. CASE: We report a case of posttransplantation lympho-proliferative disorder (PTLD) revealed by cytodiagnostic examination of serous effusions in a BMT recipient. The effusion was initially considered reactive, but morphologic, immunocytologic and molecular studies subsequently revealed PTLD. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the importance of cytologic examination of effusions in BMT or organ recipients. Since most PTLDs are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and T cells predominate in reactive effusions, appropriate initial immunostaining, including CD3, CD79a and EBV latent membrane protein, should aid in their early detection. ( info)

9/1627. Vaginal stenosis following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia.

    We report the unusual complication of vaginal stenosis occurring after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for leukaemia. This was in all likelihood a manifestation of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), although the patient has no other stigmata of this and suffered little acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after BMT. Other risk factors for vaginal stenosis were considered and appear to be absent in this patient, although the total body irradiation used as part of her conditioning therapy may play a role. We suggest that vaginal stenosis may be under-reported, since female patients suffer a number of gynaecological complications after BMT, and that regular questioning and examination may aid in making an earlier diagnosis, allowing speedier instigation of therapy and thus improving quality of life. ( info)

10/1627. Lymphoid antigens on blast cells in the agranular metamorphosis of chronic myelogenous leukaemia.

    Undifferentiated blasts from a Ph'-positive chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) in terminal metamorphosis were reacted in an indirect immunofluorescence test with antilymphocytic globulins (AHLGs), raised against cultured lymphoblasts, thoracic duct and peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy donors. After proper myeloid and/or monocytic absorptions the AHLGs interacted strongly with the undifferentiated blasts of CML, while this was not true for parallel controls with non-lymphoid leukaemias, both acute and chronic. The intensity of fluorescence, as determined by the use of a microfluorimeter, on these agranular blasts was comparable to the positivity of lymphoid cells from acute and chonic lymphatic leukaemias. These findings lend further support to the conception of a lymphoblast-like variety of terminal blastic crisis in chronic myelogenous leukaemia. ( info)
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