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1/85. Variant three-way translocation of inversion 16 in AML-M4Eo confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis.

    The inv(16) and t(16;16) characterize a subgroup of acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML) with distinct morphological features and a favorable prognosis. Both cytogenetic abnormalities result in a fusion of CBF beta at 16q22 and MYH11 gene at 16p13, whose detection by PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is useful for diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Variant translocations of inv(16)/t(16;16) are very rare and whether they are also associated with a favorable prognosis is unknown. We report a patient presenting with typical AML-M4Eo and a three-way translocation of inv(16) involving 16p13, 16q22, and 3q22. FISH studies on bone marrow (BM) chromosomes using CBFB and MYH11 dna probes revealed a fusion of CBFB and MYH11 on 16q of the der(16), as well as a signal from MYH11 on 16p but not from CBFB; normal signals for both probes were present on the normal 16. Neither of these labeled probes was on the der(3), but the translocation between the der(3) and der(16) was confirmed by using a chromosome 16 painting probe. Molecular analysis of BM cells using RT-PCR identified a CBFB-MYH11 fusion transcript type D. After achieving complete remission, the patient relapsed. We conclude that FISH and PCR are feasible tools to distinguish cases with variant abnormalities of inv(16) from cases with other chromosome 16 abnormalities. Variant abnormalities of inv(16) may be not associated with favorable prognosis.
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2/85. Are cells with trisomy 10 always malignant in hematopoietic disorders?

    Two patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M7 and AML-M4) and trisomy 10 as the sole chromosome abnormality are reported. In the first patient, all karyotypes were abnormal. A karyotypically normal cell population was present in the second patient and the trisomic cells were less numerous than the normal ones at diagnosis. A review of the literature shows the rarity of isolated trisomy 10 in hematopoietic disorders and the diversity of the involved diseases. Moreover, in some patients, the trisomic cell population was less numerous than the normal one. These data are discussed in relation with the hypothesis that cells with trisomy 10 can belong to nonmalignant clones, at least in some cases, as previously shown for trisomy 7 in other conditions.
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3/85. The inv(11)(p15q22) chromosome translocation of therapy-related myelodysplasia with NUP98-DDX10 and DDX10-NUP98 fusion transcripts.

    Chromosomal abnormalities involving the 11p15 or 11q22-23 bands have been reported in several types of human neoplasms including hematopoietic malignancies. The abnormalities are observed in therapy-related malignancies and less frequently in de novo myeloid malignancies. Abnormality of the MLL gene located on chromosome 11q23 has been well known in therapy-related myeloid malignancies, but it has been reported only recently that the inv(11)(p15q22) in de novo or therapy-related myeloid malignancies results in the fusion of NUP98 on chromosome 11p15 and DDX10 on chromosome 11q22. NUP98 is a nucleoporin that composes the nuclear pore complex and is the target gene in leukemia with the t(7;11)(p15;p15). The DDX10 gene encodes a putative adenosine triphosphate-dependent DEAD box rna helicase. Here we present another patient with acute myelocytic leukemia (M4) transformed from chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with the inv(11) chromosome who had been treated with etoposide for a germ cell tumor. By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the rna from the leukemic cells of the patient, DDX10-NUP98 and NUP98-DDX10 fusion transcripts were detected. Our case confirms that the inv(11) is a rare chromosomal translocation that is associated with therapy-related or de novo myeloid malignancy and involves NUP98 and DDX10 but not MLL. RT-PCR of the fusion transcripts might be applied to the detection of a small number of leukemic cells in the bone marrow or blood of patients in remission or in the cells harvested for autologous transplantation.
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4/85. A new recurrent translocation, t(5;11)(q35;p15.5), associated with del(5q) in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. The UK Cancer cytogenetics Group (UKCCG)

    Partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 5, del(5q), is the cytogenetic hallmark of the 5q-syndrome, a distinct subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome-refractory anemia (MDS-RA). Deletions of 5q also occur in the full spectrum of other de novo and therapy-related MDS and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) types, most often in association with other chromosome abnormalities. However, the loss of genetic material from 5q is believed to be of primary importance in the pathogenesis of all del(5q) disorders. In the present study, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies using a chromosome 5-specific whole chromosome painting probe and a 5q subtelomeric probe to determine the incidence of cryptic translocations. We studied archival fixed chromosome suspensions from 36 patients with myeloid disorders (predominantly MDS and AML) and del(5q) as the sole abnormality. In 3 AML patients studied, this identified a translocation of 5q subtelomeric sequences from the del(5q) to the short arm of an apparently normal chromosome 11. FISH with chromosome 11-specific subtelomeric probes confirmed the presence of 11p on the shortened 5q. Further FISH mapping confirmed that the 5q and 11p translocation breakpoints were the same in all 3 cases, between the nucleophosmin (NPM1) and fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4) genes on 5q35 and the Harvey ras-1-related gene complex (HRC) and the radixin pseudogene (RDPX1) on 11p15.5. Importantly, all 3 patients with the cryptic t(5;11) were children: a total of 3 of 4 AML children studied. Two were classified as AML-M2 and the third was classified as M4. All 3 responded poorly to treatment and had short survival times, ranging from 10 to 18 months. Although del(5q) is rare in childhood AML, this study indicates that, within this subgroup, the incidence of cryptic t(5;11) may be high. It is significant that none of the 24 MDS patients studied, including 11 confirmed as having 5q-syndrome, had the translocation. Therefore, this appears to be a new nonrandom chromosomal translocation, specifically associated with childhood AML with a differentiated blast cell phenotype and the presence of a del(5q).
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5/85. Acute myeloid leukemia with t(5;11): two case reports.

    A case of acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL) with t(5;11)(q31;q23) and a case of acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMMoL) with t(5;11)(q35;q13.1) are reported. The translocation between the long arm of chromosome 11q and that of chromosome 5q with leukemia have been rarely reported. Though breakpoint of both cases were subtlety different, they had morphologically monocytic character and showed hyperleukocytosis and chemoresistance.
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6/85. Chromosome 16 inversion-associated translocation: two new cases.

    Two patients with chromosome 16 inversion-associated translocation were studied with conventional cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. The same chromosome 16 was involved in inversion and translocation in both patients. The chromosome translocation breakpoint was located within the heterochromatin of chromosome 16 but outside the alpha satellite domain in the t(10;16) of the first patient, whereas it was outside the heterochromatin area in the second case with t(1;16). These two types of rearrangements may be due to different mechanisms and illustrate the possible difficulties in recognizing the chromosome 16 inversion without FISH studies.
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7/85. trisomy 11 and a complex t(11;11;22) in a patient with acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4) following myelodysplasia (MDS): a cytogenetic study of a mechanism of leukemogenesis.

    We describe a 73-year-old man diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4) following myelodysplasia with trisomy 11 and with a t(11;11;22). This is the first case with both abnormalities present in the same cells and with the t(11;11;22) involving a chromosome 11 already duplicated at 11q23. This band contains the MLL gene that undergoes partial tandem duplication in patients with 11, which is "promiscuous," being translocated with a large number of genetic partners. Our patient had a complex karyotype that was completely defined by in situ hybridization. This technique demonstrated that the t(11;11;22) derivative with a duplication of band 11q23 carried from three to four copies of MLL. Two copies of the gene were close to each other and centromeric to the break-point region. Therefore, a partial tandem duplication of the MLL gene might have happened before the occurrence of t(11;11;22). Considering the associated chromosome defects, the monosomy for the long arm of chromosome 7, due to an unbalanced translocation t(7;17), further underlines the possibility that a partial tandem duplication of the MLL gene might have taken place.
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8/85. Acute myelomonocytic leukemia with histologic features resembling sarcomatoid carcinoma in bone marrow.

    We report a case of primary acute myelomonocytic leukemia involving the bone marrow that resembled sarcomatoid carcinoma. The neoplastic cells in bone marrow biopsy specimens formed cohesive-appearing clusters and cords separated by an immature fibroblastic proliferation and myxoid stroma. Blasts in the bone marrow aspirate smears formed clusters and sheets, and a subset of blasts exhibited erythrophagocytosis. Dysgranulopoiesis was also present. Lineage was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. The tumor cells showed strong reactivity for lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, CD45, and CD68 and were negative for keratin, S100, CD20, and CD3. The serum lysozyme concentration (110 microgram/mL) was 13 times greater than the normal value (8 microgram/mL). Cytogenetic studies performed on bone marrow aspirate material revealed a complex karyotype, including trisomy 8 and abnormalities of chromosome 11q. We report this case of acute myelomonocytic leukemia because the neoplastic cells appeared cohesive and spindled, resembling sarcomatoid carcinoma, and therefore caused diagnostic difficulty. Other monocytic neoplasms with similar resemblance to carcinoma or sarcoma have been reported in the literature, suggesting that the tendency to appear cohesive may be an inherent characteristic of neoplastic cells with monocytic differentiation.
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9/85. Polysomy 13 with concomitant deletion of 13q13-14 involving the retinoblastoma gene and the D13S25 locus in a case of acute myeloid leukemia.

    We herein describe a case of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), FAB subtype M4, with an unfavorable clinical course and a complex karyotype, including 4-9 copies of chromosome 13. Polysomy 13 was a result of clonal evolution. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed a cytogenetically unrecognizable deletion within 13q13-14 that included the retinoblastoma gene (RB) and the D13S25 locus in all but one copy of chromosome 13. The only chromosome 13 that did not show a deletion affecting the q13-14 region was translocated to chromosome 7, resulting in a dic(7;13)(q21;p11). In this case, the coexistence of polysomy and a partial deletion within the same chromosome point toward a possible formation of a fusion product with oncogenic potential and its consecutive amplification as a critical alteration in this case.
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10/85. Nonrandom rearrangements of 6p in malignant hematological disorders.

    It is very uncommon to observe nontranslocation abnormalities (NTAs) involving the short arm of chromosome 6 (6p) in malignant hematological disorders (MHDs). By using conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-microdissection probes specific for 6p21 and 6p25, we observed five patients with myeloid malignancies and two patients with lymphoid malignancies to have 6p NTAs. On the basis of our data and those in the literature, it is possible to divide 6p NTAs into the following three groups in MHD: The first group presents with 6p NTAs as a sole or primary change in myeloid malignancies. There are only two cases reported in this group, including one case with del(6)(p23) and the present case with ins(6)(q23p23p25) identified by FISH only. The second group presents with 6p deletions as a sole or primary change in lymphoid malignancies. Three cases have been reported in this group, including one case with del(6)(p21p23), one with del(6)(p21), and the present case 2 with del(6)(p21). The third group has 6p deletions in addition to other known primary changes, present in both myeloid and lymphoid disorders, with 36 cases reported, including five cases from our series. Deletions involving 6p21, 6p22, or 6p23 have been observed in both myeloid and lymphoid disorders. The present data provide cogent information for further molecular characterization of 6p anomalies in MHD.
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