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1/312. Variant three-way translocation of inversion 16 in AML-M4Eo confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis.

    The inv(16) and t(16;16) characterize a subgroup of acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML) with distinct morphological features and a favorable prognosis. Both cytogenetic abnormalities result in a fusion of CBF beta at 16q22 and MYH11 gene at 16p13, whose detection by PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is useful for diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Variant translocations of inv(16)/t(16;16) are very rare and whether they are also associated with a favorable prognosis is unknown. We report a patient presenting with typical AML-M4Eo and a three-way translocation of inv(16) involving 16p13, 16q22, and 3q22. FISH studies on bone marrow (BM) chromosomes using CBFB and MYH11 dna probes revealed a fusion of CBFB and MYH11 on 16q of the der(16), as well as a signal from MYH11 on 16p but not from CBFB; normal signals for both probes were present on the normal 16. Neither of these labeled probes was on the der(3), but the translocation between the der(3) and der(16) was confirmed by using a chromosome 16 painting probe. Molecular analysis of BM cells using RT-PCR identified a CBFB-MYH11 fusion transcript type D. After achieving complete remission, the patient relapsed. We conclude that FISH and PCR are feasible tools to distinguish cases with variant abnormalities of inv(16) from cases with other chromosome 16 abnormalities. Variant abnormalities of inv(16) may be not associated with favorable prognosis. ( info)

2/312. Are cells with trisomy 10 always malignant in hematopoietic disorders?

    Two patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M7 and AML-M4) and trisomy 10 as the sole chromosome abnormality are reported. In the first patient, all karyotypes were abnormal. A karyotypically normal cell population was present in the second patient and the trisomic cells were less numerous than the normal ones at diagnosis. A review of the literature shows the rarity of isolated trisomy 10 in hematopoietic disorders and the diversity of the involved diseases. Moreover, in some patients, the trisomic cell population was less numerous than the normal one. These data are discussed in relation with the hypothesis that cells with trisomy 10 can belong to nonmalignant clones, at least in some cases, as previously shown for trisomy 7 in other conditions. ( info)

3/312. The inv(11)(p15q22) chromosome translocation of therapy-related myelodysplasia with NUP98-DDX10 and DDX10-NUP98 fusion transcripts.

    Chromosomal abnormalities involving the 11p15 or 11q22-23 bands have been reported in several types of human neoplasms including hematopoietic malignancies. The abnormalities are observed in therapy-related malignancies and less frequently in de novo myeloid malignancies. Abnormality of the MLL gene located on chromosome 11q23 has been well known in therapy-related myeloid malignancies, but it has been reported only recently that the inv(11)(p15q22) in de novo or therapy-related myeloid malignancies results in the fusion of NUP98 on chromosome 11p15 and DDX10 on chromosome 11q22. NUP98 is a nucleoporin that composes the nuclear pore complex and is the target gene in leukemia with the t(7;11)(p15;p15). The DDX10 gene encodes a putative adenosine triphosphate-dependent DEAD box rna helicase. Here we present another patient with acute myelocytic leukemia (M4) transformed from chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with the inv(11) chromosome who had been treated with etoposide for a germ cell tumor. By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the rna from the leukemic cells of the patient, DDX10-NUP98 and NUP98-DDX10 fusion transcripts were detected. Our case confirms that the inv(11) is a rare chromosomal translocation that is associated with therapy-related or de novo myeloid malignancy and involves NUP98 and DDX10 but not MLL. RT-PCR of the fusion transcripts might be applied to the detection of a small number of leukemic cells in the bone marrow or blood of patients in remission or in the cells harvested for autologous transplantation. ( info)

4/312. A case of T-lineage lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia with t(4;11)(q21;p15) that switched to myelomonocytic leukemia at relapse.

    A 51-year-old Japanese woman, initially diagnosed with T-lineage (CD2 , CD7 , CD3-, CD4-, CD8-) lymphoblastic lymphoma with t(4;11)(q21;p15), relapsed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia with the identical chromosomal abnormality. Southern-blot analysis revealed clonal rearrangements of an immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (JH) and T-cell receptor genes (J delta 1, J gamma 1, C beta 1) at first presentation, but germ line configurations of these genes at relapse. Leukemias with t(4;11)(q21;p15) may involve a hematopoietic progenitor capable of multilineage differentiation. ( info)

5/312. A new recurrent translocation, t(5;11)(q35;p15.5), associated with del(5q) in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. The UK Cancer cytogenetics Group (UKCCG)

    Partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 5, del(5q), is the cytogenetic hallmark of the 5q-syndrome, a distinct subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome-refractory anemia (MDS-RA). Deletions of 5q also occur in the full spectrum of other de novo and therapy-related MDS and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) types, most often in association with other chromosome abnormalities. However, the loss of genetic material from 5q is believed to be of primary importance in the pathogenesis of all del(5q) disorders. In the present study, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies using a chromosome 5-specific whole chromosome painting probe and a 5q subtelomeric probe to determine the incidence of cryptic translocations. We studied archival fixed chromosome suspensions from 36 patients with myeloid disorders (predominantly MDS and AML) and del(5q) as the sole abnormality. In 3 AML patients studied, this identified a translocation of 5q subtelomeric sequences from the del(5q) to the short arm of an apparently normal chromosome 11. FISH with chromosome 11-specific subtelomeric probes confirmed the presence of 11p on the shortened 5q. Further FISH mapping confirmed that the 5q and 11p translocation breakpoints were the same in all 3 cases, between the nucleophosmin (NPM1) and fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4) genes on 5q35 and the Harvey ras-1-related gene complex (HRC) and the radixin pseudogene (RDPX1) on 11p15.5. Importantly, all 3 patients with the cryptic t(5;11) were children: a total of 3 of 4 AML children studied. Two were classified as AML-M2 and the third was classified as M4. All 3 responded poorly to treatment and had short survival times, ranging from 10 to 18 months. Although del(5q) is rare in childhood AML, this study indicates that, within this subgroup, the incidence of cryptic t(5;11) may be high. It is significant that none of the 24 MDS patients studied, including 11 confirmed as having 5q-syndrome, had the translocation. Therefore, this appears to be a new nonrandom chromosomal translocation, specifically associated with childhood AML with a differentiated blast cell phenotype and the presence of a del(5q). ( info)

6/312. Acute myeloid leukemia with t(5;11): two case reports.

    A case of acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL) with t(5;11)(q31;q23) and a case of acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMMoL) with t(5;11)(q35;q13.1) are reported. The translocation between the long arm of chromosome 11q and that of chromosome 5q with leukemia have been rarely reported. Though breakpoint of both cases were subtlety different, they had morphologically monocytic character and showed hyperleukocytosis and chemoresistance. ( info)

7/312. Four cases of therapy-related leukemia.

    Combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy have contributed to the successful treatment of various cancer patients. But the development of second malignancies is an inevitable complication of long-term cytotoxic treatment. The most serious and frequent of such complications is acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Therapy-related leukemia is generally fatal. Since the number of patients exposed to chemotherapy is increasing each year, the clinical significance of this entity cannot be underestimated. There have been many investigations of therapy-related leukemia, but in korea published reports are rare. We describe four such cases, involving one older female with lung cancer and three children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and malignant lymphoma. alkylating agents were used for chemotherapy, and in one case, topoisomerase II inhibitor. Irrespective of the causative agents, the latency periods were relatively short, and despite induction chemotherapy in two, all survived for only a few months. During the follow-up of patients treated for primary malignancies, the possibility of therapy-related leukemia should always be borne in mind. ( info)

8/312. Intrathecal methotrexate-induced megaloblastic anemia in patients with acute leukemia.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the occurrence of megaloblastic anemia induced by the infusion of therapeutic or prophylactic methotrexate in patients with acute leukemia. DESIGN: Data on 3 patients with acute leukemia receiving intrathecal methotrexate were prospectively analyzed. SETTING: Large tertiary-care center. RESULTS: All 3 patients with acute leukemia developed megaloblastic anemia confirmed by examination of the bone marrow aspirate and biopsy. Two of the 3 patients had low folic acid levels, while all patients had normal serum B(12) levels. All patients responded favorably to a therapeutic trial of folic acid. The median time for recovery of the hematologic parameters in these patients was 7 days. CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecally administered methotrexate may result in megaloblastic changes in the bone marrow of leukemic patients. The morphologic clues suggestive of folate deficiency in patients with acute leukemia may be masked by coexisting factors, such as the effects of cytotoxic treatment, prior transfusions, or persistent changes from the leukemic clone itself. Caution should be exercised to avoid attributing these changes to the neoplastic process, since the prognosis and treatment for the conditions involved are totally different. Repeat examination of the bone marrow, obtaining folic acid and vitamin B(12) levels, and a therapeutic trial of folic acid may help identify and reverse these changes. ( info)

9/312. mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation patients.

    Bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients are prone to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. mycobacterium tuberculosis infection can occur in these patients, but the incidence is lower than that of other infections. This report describes four patients with mycobacterium tuberculosis infection identified from 641 adult patients who received a BMT over a 12-year period (prevalence 0.6%). The pre-transplant diagnosis was AML in two patients and CML in the other two. Pre-transplant conditioning consisted of BU/CY in three patients and CY/TBI in one. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was MTX/CsA in three patients and T cell depletion of the graft in one patient. Sites of infection were lung (two), spine (one) and central nervous system (one). Onset of infection ranged from 120 days to 20 months post BMT. Two patients had co-existing CMV infection. One patient had graft failure. The two patients who received anti-tuberculous (TB) therapy recovered from the infection. Although the incidence of tuberculosis in BMT patients is not as high as in patients with solid organ transplants, late diagnosis due to the slow growth of the bacterium can lead to delay in instituting anti-TB therapy. A high index of suspicion should be maintained, particularly in endemic areas. ( info)

10/312. Chromosome 16 inversion-associated translocation: two new cases.

    Two patients with chromosome 16 inversion-associated translocation were studied with conventional cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. The same chromosome 16 was involved in inversion and translocation in both patients. The chromosome translocation breakpoint was located within the heterochromatin of chromosome 16 but outside the alpha satellite domain in the t(10;16) of the first patient, whereas it was outside the heterochromatin area in the second case with t(1;16). These two types of rearrangements may be due to different mechanisms and illustrate the possible difficulties in recognizing the chromosome 16 inversion without FISH studies. ( info)
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