Filter by keywords:

Retrieving documents. Please wait...

11/312. Secondary acute myeloid leukemia with inv(16): report of two cases following paclitaxel-containing chemotherapy and review of the role of intensified ara-C therapy.

    Acute myeloid leukemia developing secondary to prior cytotoxic chemotherapy (s-AML) encompasses a range of distinct entities. We report two cases of s-AML with inv(16)(p13q22) who had prior exposure to paclitaxel. Additionally, two previously reported cases of s-AML with inv(16) had prior paclitaxel exposure raising the possibility that the taxanes may predispose to this specific syndrome of s-AML. One of our patients received escalated-dose ara-C chemotherapy, achieving a complete remission (12 months). We therefore examined the prognosis of previously reported cases of s-AML with inv(16) and analyzed the influence of escalated-dose ara-C (>/=400 mg/m2/day). A total of 25 evaluable cases were identified, with 96% attaining CR independent of ara-C dose. The estimated median remission duration was 40 months and the median survival has not been reached (actuarial 5-year survival 52 /- 18%). Although not achieving statistical significance, patients treated with escalated dose ara-C (n = 15) had longer remission duration and overall survival than those treated with standard dose ara-C (n = 10) (P = 0.063 and 0.20, respectively). In univariate analysis, younger age, male gender, and the presence of additional cytogenetic abnormalities were associated with a tendency towards adverse outcomes (P< 0.1). Age and gender were equally distributed between ara-C dose cohorts, but more patients treated with standard-dose ara-C had additional cytogenetic abnormalities (P = 0.048). Within the limitations of this retrospective study, this analysis suggests that, similar to de novo AML with inv(16), secondary cases may also potentially benefit from treatment with escalated-dose ara-C. This is consistent with the premise that the underlying molecular defect, rather than the presence of prior cytotoxic drug exposure, may be the most important determinant of disease behavior and chemotherapy responsiveness in AML. ( info)

12/312. Monocytic aleukemic leukemia cutis.

    The authors present a case of monocytic aleukemic leukemia cutis in which skin symptoms were the sole manifestation of the leukemia during the first year and a half of the disease. Diagnostic difficulties, the importance of immunohistochemical markers, and the prognosis and therapy of aleukemic leukemia cutis are discussed. ( info)

13/312. Choroidal infiltrates simulating fundal changes of acute leukemia during hematological recovery following high-dose chemotherapy in acute myelomonocytic leukemia in remission.

    A young female patient of 18 who was diagnosed to have acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML M4) developed choroidal infiltrate and fundal changes suggestive of acute leukemia deposits while she was in remission and was recovering from chemotherapy induced myelosuppression. The choroidal infiltrates were associated with peripheral blood and CSF monocytosis. The choroidal lesion resolved on its own in 2 week's time, when the peripheral and CSF monocytosis subsided. Interestingly this patient had pseudo-Chediak Higashi inclusions in leukemic blasts with normal karyotype. ( info)

14/312. Jumping translocation in acute leukemia of myelomonocytic lineage: a case report and review of the literature.

    Jumping translocation (JT) is a very rare cytogenetic event, occurring especially in cancer. We describe a case of secondary acute monocytic leukemia (AML5b) with a JT involving the 3q13-3qter segment and leading to a partial trisomy 3. Each clone with JT was associated with trisomy 8 or tetrasomy 8. The literature of JT in AML cases is reviewed: only 13 cases of AML associated with JT have been previously described, seven of which are AML4/5 FAB subtype. Jumping translocation involvement in leukemogenesis is discussed. leukemia (2000) 14, 119-122. ( info)

15/312. trisomy 11 and a complex t(11;11;22) in a patient with acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4) following myelodysplasia (MDS): a cytogenetic study of a mechanism of leukemogenesis.

    We describe a 73-year-old man diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4) following myelodysplasia with trisomy 11 and with a t(11;11;22). This is the first case with both abnormalities present in the same cells and with the t(11;11;22) involving a chromosome 11 already duplicated at 11q23. This band contains the MLL gene that undergoes partial tandem duplication in patients with 11, which is "promiscuous," being translocated with a large number of genetic partners. Our patient had a complex karyotype that was completely defined by in situ hybridization. This technique demonstrated that the t(11;11;22) derivative with a duplication of band 11q23 carried from three to four copies of MLL. Two copies of the gene were close to each other and centromeric to the break-point region. Therefore, a partial tandem duplication of the MLL gene might have happened before the occurrence of t(11;11;22). Considering the associated chromosome defects, the monosomy for the long arm of chromosome 7, due to an unbalanced translocation t(7;17), further underlines the possibility that a partial tandem duplication of the MLL gene might have taken place. ( info)

16/312. Vaginal ulcers as initial presentation of subacute myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Cutaneous disorders can allow the detection of severe systemic disease. We report the case of a woman with vaginal ulcerations. The lesions persisted despite oral antibiotics, antifungal therapy and local care. biopsy showed an inflammatory ulcerating process with discrete vasculitis. Peripheral blood count showed thrombocytopenia and monocytosis, and bone marrow smears revealed as subacute myelomonocytic leukemia. A review of the literature indicates that genital ulcerations are not known in association with subacute myelomonocytic leukemia. In our case, the persistent vaginal ulcerations were the initial symptom of the subacute myelomonocytic leukemia. copyright (R) 2000 S.Karger AG, Basel ( info)

17/312. Acute myelomonocytic leukemia with histologic features resembling sarcomatoid carcinoma in bone marrow.

    We report a case of primary acute myelomonocytic leukemia involving the bone marrow that resembled sarcomatoid carcinoma. The neoplastic cells in bone marrow biopsy specimens formed cohesive-appearing clusters and cords separated by an immature fibroblastic proliferation and myxoid stroma. Blasts in the bone marrow aspirate smears formed clusters and sheets, and a subset of blasts exhibited erythrophagocytosis. Dysgranulopoiesis was also present. Lineage was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. The tumor cells showed strong reactivity for lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, CD45, and CD68 and were negative for keratin, S100, CD20, and CD3. The serum lysozyme concentration (110 microgram/mL) was 13 times greater than the normal value (8 microgram/mL). Cytogenetic studies performed on bone marrow aspirate material revealed a complex karyotype, including trisomy 8 and abnormalities of chromosome 11q. We report this case of acute myelomonocytic leukemia because the neoplastic cells appeared cohesive and spindled, resembling sarcomatoid carcinoma, and therefore caused diagnostic difficulty. Other monocytic neoplasms with similar resemblance to carcinoma or sarcoma have been reported in the literature, suggesting that the tendency to appear cohesive may be an inherent characteristic of neoplastic cells with monocytic differentiation. ( info)

18/312. Identification of breakpoint cluster regions at 1p36.3 and 3q21 in hematologic malignancies with t(1;3)(p36;q21).

    The reciprocal translocation t(1;3)(p36;q21) is associated with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) characterized by trilineage dysplasia, in particular dysmegakaryocytopoiesis, and a poor prognosis. As yet no molecular genetic analyses of the t(1;3) have been reported. In four patients with t(1;3), all of whom had AML-M4, which evolved from MDS, the breakpoints at 3q21 clustered within a 60-kb region centromeric to the breakpoint of the inv(3)(q21q26), whereas the breakpoints at 1p36 clustered within a 90-kb region at 1p36.3. The presence of novel clusters in both the 3q21 and 1p36 breakpoints (BCRs) suggests a common, underlying molecular mechanism for the development of t(1;3)-positive MDS/AML. The Ribophorin I (RPN1) gene close to the BCR at 3q21 was highly expressed without gross structural changes, whereas the GR6 gene located within the BCR at 3q21 was not expressed. No other highly expressed genes were isolated in a 150-kb region at 3q21. Thus, it is likely that a gene at 1p36.3 is activated by the translocation of the 3q21 region or a gene important for transformation lies on 3q21, outside the 150-kb region. Further characterization of the BCRs at 1p36.3 and 3q21 should provide important insights into the molecular genetic mechanisms involved in the genesis of t(1;3)-positive MDS/AML. Genes chromosomes Cancer 27:229-238, 2000. ( info)

19/312. Identification of a gene at 11q23 encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor: evidence for its fusion with MLL in acute myeloid leukemia.

    We have identified a gene at 11q23, telomeric to MLL, that encodes a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). This gene is transcribed into a 9.5-kb mRNA containing a 4.6-kb ORF. By Northern analysis, it was found to be expressed in all human tissues examined including peripheral blood leukocytes, spleen, prostate, testis, ovary, small intestine, colon, and minimally in thymus. Analysis of the predicted protein sequence indicates that it has strong homology to several members of the family of Rho GEFs that includes such oncogenes as Dbl, Vav, Tiam, and Bcr. A patient with primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and a karyotype of 51,XY, 8, 19, 3mar was found to have the 5' end of MLL at exon 6 fused in-frame with the 3' end of almost the entire ORF of this gene, which we named LARG for leukemia-associated Rho GEF. Transcriptional orientation of both genes at 11q23 is from centromere to telomere, consistent with other data that suggest the MLL-LARG fusion resulted from an interstitial deletion rather than a balanced translocation. LARG does not appear to have any homology with other MLL partner genes reported thus far. Thus, LARG represents an additional member of the GEF family and a novel MLL fusion partner in acute myeloid leukemia. ( info)

20/312. gingival hyperplasia complicating acute myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Many systemic illnesses manifest clinical signs in the oral cavity. A remarkable case of gingival hyperplasia heralding the presence of acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML FAB-M4) is described. The oral manifestations of acute leukemia are reviewed. ( info)
<- Previous || Next ->

Leave a message about 'Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute'

We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.