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1/180. Systemic mast cell disease with marrow and splenic involvement associated with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Systemic mast cell disease (SMCD) has a highly variable clinical expression and course. That SMCD is associated with hematologic disorders has been widely described. We report an unusual case of systemic mast cell disease and concurrent chronic myelomonocytic leukemia in a 60 year old male.
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keywords = leukemia, m
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2/180. The inv(11)(p15q22) chromosome translocation of therapy-related myelodysplasia with NUP98-DDX10 and DDX10-NUP98 fusion transcripts.

    Chromosomal abnormalities involving the 11p15 or 11q22-23 bands have been reported in several types of human neoplasms including hematopoietic malignancies. The abnormalities are observed in therapy-related malignancies and less frequently in de novo myeloid malignancies. Abnormality of the MLL gene located on chromosome 11q23 has been well known in therapy-related myeloid malignancies, but it has been reported only recently that the inv(11)(p15q22) in de novo or therapy-related myeloid malignancies results in the fusion of NUP98 on chromosome 11p15 and DDX10 on chromosome 11q22. NUP98 is a nucleoporin that composes the nuclear pore complex and is the target gene in leukemia with the t(7;11)(p15;p15). The DDX10 gene encodes a putative adenosine triphosphate-dependent DEAD box rna helicase. Here we present another patient with acute myelocytic leukemia (M4) transformed from chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with the inv(11) chromosome who had been treated with etoposide for a germ cell tumor. By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the rna from the leukemic cells of the patient, DDX10-NUP98 and NUP98-DDX10 fusion transcripts were detected. Our case confirms that the inv(11) is a rare chromosomal translocation that is associated with therapy-related or de novo myeloid malignancy and involves NUP98 and DDX10 but not MLL. RT-PCR of the fusion transcripts might be applied to the detection of a small number of leukemic cells in the bone marrow or blood of patients in remission or in the cells harvested for autologous transplantation.
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ranking = 0.6000036287788
keywords = leukemia, m
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3/180. Myelodysplastic syndrome and associated skin lesions: a review of the literature.

    The skin involvement of the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) can take the form of either a neoplastic infiltration or various non specific lesions. The occurrence of these lesions may be the presenting feature of the disease (MDS) or may herald its progression to acute leukemia. Recognition and early diagnosis have therapeutic and prognostic significance.
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ranking = 0.20000032823125
keywords = leukemia, m
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4/180. Extramedullary relapse despite graft-versus-leukemia effect after bone marrow transplantation in a girl with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

    A 12 year-old girl with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) and monosomy 7 underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from her HLA-matched brother. To monitor the engraftment and the course of the disease we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes specific for the centromeres of chromosomes X, Y and 7. Complete hematological remission was achieved and confirmed by the virtually exclusive presence of normal male cells in the bone marrow (BM). Acute graft-versus host disease (GvHD) was treated with prednisone and cyclosporine A (CSA) and female cells with monosomy 7 reoccurred in the peripheral blood (PB) and BM. After discontinuation of the immunosuppressive therapy, the leukemic cells with monosomy 7 disappeared again from these compartments. One year after transplantation, isolated extramedullary relapses occurred in lymph nodes and skin, followed by dissemination of blast cells into the BM, whereas the PB cells remained of donor origin. The fact that the leukemic cells fluctuated with the intensity of the immunosuppressive treatment provides evidence of a graft versus leukemia (GvL) effect in this unusually old girl with JMML with a unique extramedullary disease progression.
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ranking = 1.9999991794219
keywords = leukemia, m
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5/180. lupus nephritis in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

    A 13-year-old girl developed lupus nephritis and Hashimoto thyroiditis in the chronic phase of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). At age 7 months, she was diagnosed as having JMML based on the hepatosplenomegaly, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, increased levels of fetal hemoglobin, and spontaneous in vitro growth of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. At the onset of JMML, she had hypergammaglobulinemia, antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factors and anti-smooth muscle antibody. She had been placed on oral 6-mercaptopurine for about 12 years, with clinical improvement. At age 13 years, she was found to have hematuria and proteinuria. She also developed arthritis and Raynaud's phenomenon as well. She had antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factors, LE phenomenon, beta-1C (C3) nephritic factor (C3NeF), antithyroid antibodies, and hypocomplementemia. The renal biopsy specimens revealed a diffuse increase in the mesangial cells and matrix by light microscopy, and intense staining of IgG, Clq and C3 by immunofluorescence microscopy. The hormonal study ultimately showed decreased thyroid functions. So she was diagnosed as lupus nephritis and Hashimoto thyroiditis. The patient is the first example to show close relationship between stem cell abnormalities in JMML and development of overt autoimmune disorders.
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ranking = 1.0000014588055
keywords = leukemia, m
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6/180. Reversible cardiomyopathy secondary to alpha-interferon in an infant.

    interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is a biological response modifier with antiviral and tumoral effect that is used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemias. Adverse effects are well documented and cardiovascular disturbances mostly include hypotension and tachycardia and rarely cardiomyopathy. We report on an infant with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CML) diagnosed at 3 months of age who was treated with increasing IFN-alpha dosage (2.5-5.5 million U/m2/day) given subcutaneously for 7.5 months. At that age, he presented anorexia, general malaise, and nocturnal sweating for about a week, followed by respiratory distress and tachycardia. Diagnosis of congestive heart failure was suspected and documented by cardiomegaly and echographic changes of left ventricular dilated cardiomyopathy, with a 40% left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and 20% fractional shortening (FS). He was treated with digoxin, furosemide, and angiotensin converting inhibitors, and IFN-alpha was discontinued. Progressive improvement of cardiac function was observed within 7 months of the events with normalization of the echocardiographic findings (EF 60%, FS 31%). We should emphasize the possibility of severe and reversible cardiac toxicity of IFN-alpha in infancy.
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ranking = 0.40000129468992
keywords = leukemia, m
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7/180. Renal and adrenal gland localization of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia presenting as a kidney tumor.

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) characterized by prominent monocytosis and an increase in bone marrow monocyte precursors in addition to dyshaematopoietic features (1). Extrahaematological manifestations including cutaneous, neurologic, and rheumatic symptoms have been recorded in association with CMML. Here, we report the first observation of renal, adrenal and perirenal involvement in CMML which presented as a kidney tumor.
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ranking = 0.99999963529861
keywords = leukemia, m
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8/180. A group of previously not recognized cytogenetic abnormalities in myeloid hematological malignancies.

    We have identified a group of previously not reported chromosome abnormalities related to myeloid hematological malignancies. Cases 1 and 2 were observed to have an additional i(4)(p10) as the sole anomaly with similar clinical features of myeloid disorders; that is, acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL-M2) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-refractory anemia with an excess of blasts in transformation, respectively. fluorescence in situ hybridization studies with the use of a 4p-specific microdissection probe further confirmed the presence of an i(4)(p10) in these patients. Case 3 was diagnosed with ANLL-M1 and had an additional i(8)(p10) as the only change, also confirmed by a whole-chromosome painting procedure. In cases 4-6, deletions of 18q at breakpoints q12, q23, and q21 were identified as the sole anomaly in a myeloproliferative disorder (MPD), MPD, and MDS, respectively. X-autosome translocations other than t(X;10)(p11;p11) and t(X;11)(q13;q23) have not been reported as recurrent or primary changes in hematological disorders. In the present study, a t(X;9)(q26;q22) and t(X;5)(q13;q33) as the sole anomaly were found in cases 7 and 8, respectively. Both cases had the same diagnosis of MDS. Considering that trisomies 4 ( 4) and 8 ( 8) are common anomalies in MDS and ANLL, our findings strongly indicate that amplification of genes on 4p and 8p, but not on 4q and 8q, may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of MDS and ANLL. In addition, genes on 18q12-23 and on Xq13-26 may be involved in the pathogenesis of myeloid disorders.
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ranking = 0.20000397524512
keywords = leukemia, m
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9/180. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with t(7;11)(p15;p15) and NUP98/HOXA9 fusion.

    Translocation (7;11)(p15;p15) is a recently characterized chromosomal abnormality that results in fusion of the NUP98 gene on 11p15 and the HOXA9 gene on 7p15. It shows a strong racial predisposition, being found predominantly in Oriental patients, and has been reported almost exclusively in acute myeloid leukemia, often with associated myelodysplastic changes. In this report, we describe the unique occurrence of t(7;11)(p15;p15) and NUP98/HOXA9 fusion in a patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and suggest that the genetic lesion may involve multipotential myeloid stem cells.
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ranking = 1.2030476597088
keywords = leukemia, myeloid leukemia, m
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10/180. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and noonan syndrome.

    A case of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML, previously referred to as JCML) in a neonate with noonan syndrome (NS) is described. The boy presented with bilateral congenital hydrothoraces, nonimmune hydrops, dysmorphic facies, persistent thrombocytopenia, and leukocytosis. The diagnosis of JMML was made on bone marrow cell culture studies. review of the literature reveals an unusual preponderance of hematologic malignancies, in particular JMML, among patients with NS. Of 40 NS patients admitted to the authors' institution during a 10-year period, there were 4 (10%) with evidence of a monocytic proliferation, which resolved spontaneously. The authors postulate that patients with NS may have an increased incidence of myeloproliferative disorders, which in most cases appears to be benign but may be preleukemic or even lethal.
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ranking = 0.99999990882465
keywords = leukemia, m
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