Cases reported "Leukemia, Prolymphocytic"

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1/72. T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia with a novel translocation (6;11)(q21;q23).

    T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is an uncommon chronic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and lymphocytosis. The leukemic cells have the appearance of prolymphocytes and usually an immunophenotype of T-helper cells (CD3 CD4 CD8-). Inv(14q), del(11q), i(8q), and rearranged Xq28 are the commonest nonrandom chromosomal abnormalities in T-PLL. Recently, it has been shown that the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene located at 11q23 is often deleted in T-PLL, suggesting a tumor suppressor role of the ATM gene on tumorigenesis of T-PLL. We report a case of T-PLL with t(6;11)(q21;q23) as the sole chromosomal abnormality and suggest that the cytogenetically identified translocation also implicates the ATM gene.
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2/72. T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia: does the expression of CD8 phenotype justify the identification of a new subtype? Description of two cases and review of the literature.

    T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (T-CLL) has recently been reclassified under the heading of T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia (T-PLL) because of its unfavourable clinical course, independently of the morphologic features. This rare neoplasm usually shows CD4 /CD8- phenotype. Herein we report on two cases of T-PLL with CD8 expression that correspond to a possible variant of the disease first proposed by Hui et al. in 1987. These cases presented with malignant cells showing immunophenotypic features that can be easily identified and distinguished from other peripheral T-cell leukemias. However, the total number of cases studied is inadequate for defining a discrete clinico-pathologic entity with characteristic clinical features and cytogenetical abnormalities. An international collaboration in which tissue from similar cases is referred to a central pathologist for immunophenotyping and cytogenetical study, and clinical data are centrally compiled, may assist in defining this rare malady as a discrete clinico-pathologic entity.
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3/72. Improvement of quality of life after splenectomy in an HTLV-I carrier with T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia.

    A 34-year-old woman of HTLV-I carrier with T-PLL, whose quality of life improved and survival was prolonged after splenectomy, is described. The patient had marked splenomegaly, generalized lymphadenopathy and marked proliferation of abnormal lymphocytes in the peripheral blood with an irregular nucleus, deeply basophilic cytoplasm and a single prominent nucleolus, which were positive for CD2, CD3, CD5, CD7, CD4 and CD8. Although the patient had serum antibody against HTLV-I, HTLV-I proviral dna integration was not detected. She was diagnosed as an HTLV-I carrier with T-PLL and received combination chemotherapy and 15.1 Gy splenic irradiation. However, the generalized lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly did not improve. The patient underwent splenectomy to palliate abdominal distension and hypersplenism. After the operation, her symptoms improved dramatically and within a week her hemoglobin concentration and platelet count normalized. She was discharged from hospital two weeks after the splenectomy, however 11 months later, she relapsed and despite treatment with chemotherapy and alpha-interferon, she died two months after the second admission. autopsy findings revealed that PLL cells had invaded the bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver, lungs, kidneys, uterus, ovaries and adrenal glands.
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4/72. Seropositive polyarthritis and skin manifestations in T-prolymphocytic leukemia/Sezary cell leukemia variant.

    Sezary cell leukemia (SCL) is a rare T cell neoplasia that has been suggested to be a variant of T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL). Both disorders have an aggressive clinical course, lymphocytosis with characteristic morphology, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, characteristic cytogenetic abnormalities and mature T cell phenotypes. Skin lesions, however, are mainly found in T-PLL. We describe a patient with T-PLL/SCL, who atypically presented with severe seropositive polyarthritis and skin lesions, responding to treatment with human CD52 antibody, CAMPATH-1H and pentostatin. Meningeal leukemia and an assumed myocardial infiltration subsequently developed. Polyarthritis is common in T large granular lymphocyte leukemia and adult T cell lymphoma-leukemia, but both entities could be ruled out in the present case. In rheumatoid arthritis, an expansion of CD4 and/or CD8 T lymphocytes is well documented and this phenomenon is believed to be of pathogenetic importance. We speculate that the T cell clone in the present case had special homing properties or cytokine effects resulting in synovitis.
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ranking = 2.6
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5/72. Treatment of T-prolymphocytic leukemia with nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    AIM: T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare disease of the elderly characterized by a high white blood cell count and organomegaly, and is currently incurable. Our aim was to elicit graft-versus-leukemia reactions in a patient with T-PLL. methods: A 52-yr-old woman with refractory T-PLL underwent a nonmyeloablative regimen followed by allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (a "minitransplant") from her HLA-matched sibling. RESULTS: There was no treatment related toxicity other than neutropenia. Engraftment was successful. The patient experienced no graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at any time but, on day 84 after transplantation, had a relapse in the central nervous system. Despite infusion of donor lymphocytes and intralumbar chemotherapy, she died on day 157 of systemic disease. CONCLUSION: The reasons why treatment may have failed are discussed (nature of disease, disease progression, treatment schedule).
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6/72. Prolonged survival in two cases of T-prolymphocytic leukemias with complex hypodiploid chromosomal abnormalities.

    We encountered two cases of T-prolymphocytic leukemias (T-PLL) with complex hypodiploid chromosomal abnormalities. Both cases showed mild organomegaly and marked leukocytosis (144.5 x 10(9)/L, 102.6 x 10(9)/L, respectively). Although both cases developed into refractory progressive diseases at the terminal stage, the oral administration of dexamethasone was very effective for leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia in case 1 and oral cyclophosphamide was effective for reducing elevated leukocytes and the organomegaly in case 2. Despite the poor prognosis of T-PLL, our cases showed that less toxic therapies such as oral dexamethasone or cyclophosphamide may be the treatment of choice for patients with an indolent phase of T-PLL. Our study and previously reported findings suggest that complex hypodiploid chromosomal abnormalities are characteristic in T-PLL.
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7/72. Concurrent Hodgkin's disease (mixed cellularity type) and T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/prolymphocytic leukemia.

    We describe a patient with leukopenic T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/prolymphocytic leukemia (T-CLL/PLL), according to the Revised European-American classification of Lymphoid neoplasms. This patient simultaneously developed classic Hodgkin's disease (HD), a combination previously unreported. The leukemic cells were small and mature, did not have cytoplasmic granulation, and appeared similar to B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. immunophenotyping of the bone marrow-infiltrating cells revealed a postthymic suppressor/cytotoxic phenotype of CD2 , CD3 , CD4, CD5 , CD8 , CD25-, TCR-alpha beta. A lymph node biopsy showed the histological features of HD (mixed cellularity) with infiltrating CD8 lymphocytes, and immunohistochemical examination revealed the following phenotype of reed-sternberg cells: LeuM1/CD15 , BerH2/CD30 , L26/PanB-, UCHL-1/CD45RO-, cyCD3-, CD4, CD8-, CD20-, CD79a-, EMA-, EBER-1 , LMP-1 . Southern blot analysis of the bone marrow and lymph node revealed the same rearrangement of bands of T-cell-receptor genes. Although the HD was treated with chemotherapy that resulted in complete remission, the T-PLL/CLL took an indolent course. This case may suggest the existence of a subtype of T-CLL/PLL with leukopenia and an indolent clinical course. Both diseases were believed to be independent and not a transformation of one to the other.
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ranking = 2.2
keywords = leukemia
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8/72. Mantle cell leukemia, prolymphocytoid type: a rarely described form.

    Leukemic manifestations of mantle cell lymphoma are seen in a minority of cases, usually associated with extensive tumor. Usually the neoplastic cells in the peripheral blood resemble mantle cells with a mature chromatin pattern and irregular nuclear contours, or less frequently with a more "blastic" chromatin pattern. A prolymphocytic leukemia with t(11;14)(q13;q32) has previously been reported; however, a complete flow cytometric immunophenotypic profile was lacking. Mantle cell leukemia, prolymphocytoid type with complete flow cytometric data has not previously been described and is the purpose of this report. We report such a case in a 90 year-old female who presented with an elevated white blood cell count. The diagnosis was based on flow cytometric immunophenotyping and the cytomorphology of the peripheral blood combined with cyclin d1 immunohistochemical staining of the bone marrow. We describe our findings and her clinical course in order to heighten awareness of this previously rarely described entity.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = leukemia
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9/72. Masquerade syndrome: T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia presenting as panuveitis.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia with panuveitis as the primary presenting feature. methods: Case report. RESULTS: A 46-year-old woman presented with pain and blurred vision in the right eye. She was found to have signs of panuveitis with a central exudative retinal detachment. Further investigations revealed that she was suffering from the rare T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia. Both systemic and ocular manifestations of the disease resolved after chemotherapy with Campath-IH antigen and as she went into complete remission. The exudative detachment settled, and visual acuity recovered to 20/20. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates that leukemias can present with primarily ocular findings, and the sudden appearance of a serous retinal detachment with inflammatory signs in an otherwise healthy person warrants a thorough systemic screening for an underlying malignancy.
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ranking = 1.4
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10/72. High remission rate in T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia with CAMPATH-1H.

    T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a chemotherapy-resistant malignancy with a median survival of 7.5 months. Preliminary results indicated a high remission induction rate with the human CD52 antibody, CAMPATH-1H. This study reports results in 39 patients with T-PLL treated with CAMPATH-1H between March 1993 and May 2000. All but 2 patients had received prior therapy with a variety of agents, including 30 with pentostatin; none achieved complete remission (CR). CAMPATH-1H (30 mg) was administered intravenously 3 times weekly until maximal response. The overall response rate was 76% with 60% CR and 16% partial remission (PR). These responses were durable with a median disease-free interval of 7 months (range, 4-45 months). survival was significantly prolonged in patients achieving CR compared to PR or no response (NR), including one patient who survived 54 months. Nine patients remain alive up to 29 months after completing therapy. Seven patients received high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell support, 3 of whom remain alive in CR 5, 7, and 15 months after autograft. Stem cell harvests in these patients were uncontaminated with T-PLL cells as demonstrated by dual-color flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction. Four patients had allogeneic stem cell transplants, 3 from siblings and 1 from a matched unrelated donor. Two had nonmyeloablative conditioning. Three are alive in CR up to 24 months after allograft. The conclusion is that CAMPATH-1H is an effective therapy in T-PLL, producing remissions in more than two thirds of patients. The use of stem cell transplantation to consolidate responses merits further study.
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