Cases reported "Leukemia, Prolymphocytic"

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1/6. T-prolymphocytic leukaemia with spontaneous remission.

    T-prolymphocytic leukaemia (T-PLL) is a rare dis-order with a poor prognosis. A 69-year-old man was diagnosed as having a small-cell variant of T-PLL according to the French-American-British classification by haematological, immunological and ultrastructural studies, although the cells had a CD7- phenotype and no chromosomal abnormality. He had no symptoms or organomegaly. The number of his lymphocytes, 53.7 x 109/l at the time of diagnosis, gradually decreased without therapy, and he was in complete remission 39 months later. A rearranged band in the T-cell antigen receptor-beta gene, which was detected at the time of diagnosis, decreased or disappeared. This is the first report of a T-PLL case with spontaneous complete remission.
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2/6. Prolonged survival in two cases of T-prolymphocytic leukemias with complex hypodiploid chromosomal abnormalities.

    We encountered two cases of T-prolymphocytic leukemias (T-PLL) with complex hypodiploid chromosomal abnormalities. Both cases showed mild organomegaly and marked leukocytosis (144.5 x 10(9)/L, 102.6 x 10(9)/L, respectively). Although both cases developed into refractory progressive diseases at the terminal stage, the oral administration of dexamethasone was very effective for leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia in case 1 and oral cyclophosphamide was effective for reducing elevated leukocytes and the organomegaly in case 2. Despite the poor prognosis of T-PLL, our cases showed that less toxic therapies such as oral dexamethasone or cyclophosphamide may be the treatment of choice for patients with an indolent phase of T-PLL. Our study and previously reported findings suggest that complex hypodiploid chromosomal abnormalities are characteristic in T-PLL.
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3/6. T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia with autoimmune manifestations in nijmegen breakage syndrome.

    nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is characterized by growth retardation, microcephaly, mental retardation, immunodeficiency, and predisposition to malignancies, especially B-cell lymphomas. In contrast, leukemia is rare. A 23-year-old NBS patient presented with anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hyperlymphocytosis. The diagnosis of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) was confirmed by cytological and immunological assays (TdT(-), CD2( ), CD5( ), CD3m, and CD7( )). Biological assays also showed a hemolytic anemia and a clotting factor V decrease. The patient was first treated by methylprednisone for 3 weeks. During this period the lymphocyte count decreased. The simultaneous normalization of the hemolysis and of factor V suggested that both could be related to T-PLL. Since T-PLL is refractory to conventional therapies with a poor prognosis, an intensive chemotherapy such as 2'-deoxycoformycin with anti-CDw52 monoclonal antibodies is usually favored. In the present case, however, because of the specific context (i.e., NBS-induced immunodepression, severe hemolytic anemia, and acquired factor v deficiency), he received pentostatin weekly during 1 month and in maintenance during 6 months. At last follow-up (7 months) he showed a persistent control of the lymphocytosis with no side effect.
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4/6. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a patient with T-prolymphocytic leukemia with small-intestinal involvement.

    Although T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is characterized by organ infiltration, small-intestinal involvement is rare. We performed an unrelated allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a patient with T-PLL who had multiple lymphomatous polyposis of the small intestine refractory to combination chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone [COP] and fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide). The patient developed no graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and remains in complete remission 16 months after the transplantation. T-PLL is usually refractory to chemotherapy and is a T-cell malignancy with poor prognosis. There have been several reports on allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for T-PLL, but none on allo-HSCT for T-PLL patients with intestinal involvement. It is suggested that allo-HSCT may improve the prognosis in patients with T-PLL involving the small intestine.
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5/6. Conjunctival involvement with T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia: report of a case and review of the literature.

    T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia is a rare and highly aggressive hematological neoplasm. A patient with T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia presented with bilateral perilimbal conjunctival infiltrates. Conjunctival biopsy showed aggregates of large atypical lymphocytes in the substantia propria with a concentration of atypical cells in the perivascular areas. immunophenotyping of the malignant cells identified an abnormal clonal T-cell population consistent with T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia. A literature review of all reports of conjunctival involvement with leukemia was performed. The three cases of ocular prolymphocytic leukemia, including the one case of ocular T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia, are discussed in detail as well as 14 reported clinical cases of biopsy-proven conjunctival leukemia. The majority of cases occurred in the setting of acute leukemia, and conjunctival involvement was frequently a presenting sign of the disease or signified disease relapse. Conjunctival involvement with leukemia was consistent with good visual acuity; however, it portended a poor prognosis.
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6/6. Splenic irradiation as primary therapy for prolymphocytic leukemia.

    A patient with prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL), a lymphoproliferative disorder that carries a poor prognosis, is presented. The disease was diagnosed at an early stage and treatment could be delayed for four years. When massive, painful splenomegaly developed, splenic irradiation (SI) was chosen as the primary form of therapy and an excellent systemic response could be achieved. Our observation is in agreement with preliminary studies, which advocate SI as the primary form of therapy in PLL. Furthermore, it is emphasized that an early diagnosis of PLL is necessary to establish its true course and that the prognosis may be better than originally thought.
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ranking = 2
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