Cases reported "Leukemia"

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1/82. Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected natural killer (NK) cell proliferation in patients with severe mosquito allergy; establishment of an IL-2-dependent NK-like cell line.

    The clinical evidence of a relationship between severe hypersensitivity to mosquito bite (HMB) and clonal expansion of EBV-infected NK cells has been accumulated. In order to clarify the mechanism of EBV-induced NK cell proliferation and its relationship with high incidence of leukaemias or lymphomas in HMB patients, we studied clonally expanded NK cells from three HMB patients and succeeded in establishing an EBV-infected NK-like cell line designated KAI3. immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that KAI3 cells as well as infected NK cells exhibited an EBV latent infection type II, where EBV gene expression was limited to EBNA 1 and LMP1. As KAI3 was established by culture with IL-2, IL-2 responsiveness of peripheral blood NK cells from patients was examined. The results represented markedly augmented IL-2-induced IL-2R alpha expression in NK cells. This characteristic property may contribute to the persistent expansion of infected NK cells. However, KAI3 cells as well as the NK cells from patients were not protected from apoptosis induced by either an anti-Fas antibody or NK-sensitive k562 cells. Preserved sensitivity to apoptosis might explain the relatively regulated NK cell numbers in the peripheral blood of the patients. To our knowledge, KAI3 is the first reported NK-like cell line established from patients of severe chronic active EBV infection (SCAEBV) before the onset of leukaemias or lymphomas. KAI3 cells will contribute to the study of EBV persistency in the NK cell environment and its relationship with high incidence of leukaemias or lymphomas in HMB patients.
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2/82. Successful control of systemic aspergillus niger infections in two patients with acute leukemia.

    The diagnosis and successful control of systemic aspergillus niger infection in 2 adult patients with acute leukemia is reported. During induction therapy, the first patient developed pulmonary infiltrates, skin lesions and abnormal liver function tests. aspergillus niger was found on skin and liver biopsy. This patient was successfully treated with amphotericin b and granulocyte transfusions and he remains in remission. The second patient developed a pneumonitis and adynamic ileus with positive sputum and stool cultures for aspergillus niger. The infection only responded to amphotericin b and granulocyte transfusions and the leukemia to cytoreductive chemotherapy. The patient later relapsed and died after a febrile illness. fungi morpholocially consistent with Aspergillus were found in the liver at autopsy. infection with A. niger is rare even in this patient population; however fungal infections have become an increasing problem. The need for a high index of suspicion, especially when an infection is unresponsive to antibacterial antibiotics, the various diagnostic tools, and the need for aggressive therapy are stressed. amphotericin b is the chemotherapy of choice but may be insufficient in a severely neutropenic host where the simultaneous use of granulocyte transfusions might be lifesaving.
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3/82. Disseminated infection caused by scedosporium prolificans in a patient with acute multilineal leukemia.

    In this report, we describe a case of disseminated infection caused by scedosporium prolificans (S. inflatum) in a patient affected by chemotherapy-induced acute multilineal leukemia and neutropenia. For the fungus isolated in four blood cultures, high MICs of currently available antifungal agents were found. Postmortem examination revealed multiorgan involvement.
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4/82. Human bone marrow stroma-dependent cell line MOLP-5 derived from a patient in leukaemic phase of multiple myeloma.

    The novel multiple myeloma (MM) cell line MOLP-5 and its homologous sister cell line B407, a lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL), were established from the peripheral blood of a 71-year-old Japanese patient with Bence-Jones kappa-type multiple myeloma (stage IIIB with hyperammonaemia and hypercalcaemia). The growth of MOLP-5 cells is constitutively dependent on bone marrow stroma (BST) cells; none of the cytokines tested nor the culture supernatant of the bone marrow stroma cells could support the growth of MOLP-5. Wright-Giemsa-stained MOLP-5 cells showed typical plasma cell morphology with abundant cytoplasm and one to three nuclei. The immunoprofile of MOLP-5 corresponds to that seen typically in primary MM cells: positive for cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (Ig) kappa light chain, CD28, CD29, CD38, CD40, CD44, CD49d, CD54, CD56, CD58, CD71, CD138 and PCA-1; the cells were negative for surface Ig and various other B-cell, T-cell and myelomonocyte-associated immunomarkers. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor mRNA was found in the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. IL-6 and IL-10 could induce cellular proliferation in short-term induction experiments. IL-6 or IL-10 production was not detected by specific enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). MOLP-5 cells expressed parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) at the mRNA level. cytogenetic analysis showed the typical t(11; 14) chromosome abnormality. The novel MOLP-5 cell line together with the B407 B-LCL sister line will be useful model systems in the investigation of the biology of MM.
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5/82. Successful treatment of disseminated fusarium infection in an infant with leukemia.

    Disseminated fusarium infection in an immunocompromised host is intractable and results in high mortality. We provide the first full case report on successful treatment of a disseminated fusarium infection in an infant. The 6-month-old infant, whose family raised livestock, had infantile leukemia. During the neutropenic period after intensive chemotherapy, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, subcutaneous nodes, and coughing appeared. pneumonia was diagnosed, and fusarium moniliforme was isolated from blood culture. A central venous catheter was removed. granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and amphotericin b (AMPH-B) (total dose, 65 mg/kg) were administered continuously for 8 weeks. The infection was resolved according to improvement of clinical and laboratory findings, and intensive chemotherapy was restarted for the leukemia. cord blood stem cell transplantation from an unrelated donor was performed. The fusarium infection did not recur, but after transplantation, leukemia relapsed. Treatment of neutrophils using G-CSF, AMPH-B, and local treatment induced resolution of the disseminated fusarium infection in this immunocompromised host with malignancy. We suggest caution for patients living in an environment conducive to the development of fusarium infection because of the particular risk of infection.
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6/82. fungemia due to scedosporium prolificans: a description of two cases with fatal outcome.

    Two cases, probably related, of fungemia due to scedosporium prolificans are described in two patients with acute leukemia. Both were admitted to the hematological ward in nearby rooms, during building work in the hospital. After a previous bacterial sepsis in the neutropenic phase, which improved with antibiotic treatment, the respiratory status in both patients deteriorated presenting acute dypsnea, with a lung infiltrate in one of them. A few hours later both patients died. Blood cultures were positive for S. prolificans. These two new cases of S. prolificans infection stress the importance of awareness of this emerging pathogen in patients who suffer a hematologic malignancy during the neutropenic phase, especially if building work is taking place in the hospital.
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7/82. trisomy 8 in myelodysplasia and acute leukemia is constitutional in 15-20% of cases.

    The trisomy 8 found in malignancies may derive from a constitutional trisomy 8 mosaicism (CT8M), and in these cases the trisomy itself may be regarded as the first mutation in a multistep carcinogenetic process. To assess the frequency of CT8M in hematological dysplastic and neoplastic disorders with trisomy 8, an informative sample of 14 patients was collected. The data ascertained included chromosome analyses of fibroblast cultures and of PHA-stimulated blood cultures in patients with normal blood differential count, as well as possible CT8M clinical signs. One patient showed trisomy 8 in all cell types analyzed and undoubtedly has a CT8M; a second patient consistently showed trisomy 8 in PHA-stimulated blood cultures when no immature myeloid cells were present in blood and should be considered as having CT8M; a third patient, with philadelphia-positive chronic myelocytic leukemia, was more difficult to interpret, but the possibility that she had CT8M is likely. A few clinical signs of CT8M were also present in these three patients. Our data indicate that the frequency of CT8M in hematological dysplastic and neoplastic disorders with trisomy 8 is approximately 15-20%.
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8/82. Recurrent sphingomonas paucimobilis -bacteraemia associated with a multi-bacterial water-borne epidemic among neutropenic patients.

    A cluster of septicaemias due to several water-related species occurred in a haematological unit of a university hospital. In recurrent septicaemias of a leukaemic patient caused by sphingomonas paucimobilis, genotyping of the blood isolates by use of random amplified polymorphic dna-analysis verified the presence of two distinct S. paucimobilis strains during two of the separate episodes. A strain of S. paucimobilis identical to one of the patient's was isolated from tap water collected in the haematological unit. Thus S. paucimobilis present in blood cultures was directly linked to bacterial colonization of the hospital water system. Heterogeneous finger-printing patterns among the clinical and environmental isolates indicated the distribution of a variety of S. paucimobilis clones in the hospital environment. This link also explained the multi-microbial nature of the outbreak.
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9/82. Hemophagocytosis and granulomas in the bone marrow of a child with down syndrome.

    Persistent fever with pancytopenia and hepatomegaly with negative blood cultures and no obvious focus of infection in a child with down syndrome should arouse a suspicion of leukemia. bone marrow examination and clot biopsy from one such patient revealed hemophagocytosis and granulomas, with serologic evidence of recent Epstein-Barr virus infection. Bone marrow granulomas are not a feature of Epstein-Barr infection. Later, bone marrow culture and repeat blood culture grew salmonella typhi. Thus, in a febrile child, when performing a bone marrow aspirate, a clot biopsy and culture for infectious etiology may be helpful, even when leukemia is strongly suspected.
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10/82. agar culture and chromosome analysis of eosinophilic leukaemia.

    The blood and bone marrow of a 75-year-old woman with eosinophilia were studied in an attempt to characterize further the entity eosinophilic leukaemia (EL). Haemopoietic cell culture in agar gave patterns of colony size and number and cell morphology indistinguishable from those seen in classical chronic granulocytic leukaemia (CGL). Analysis of myeloid cells showed an extra C group chromosome that proved on Giemsa banding to be number 10. These results suggest that some cases of EL represent a chronic myeloproliferative disease that resembles classical CGL but can be distinguished from it by chromosomal analysis.
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