Cases reported "Leukemia"

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1/102. Acute leukemia with the phenotype of a natural killer/T cell bipotential precursor.

    An acute leukemia with an unusual immunophenotype developed in a 17-year-old girl. At the initial presentation, extramedullary involvement was not evident, but with advancing disease, massive splenomegaly and an osteolytic rib tumor developed. The disease was aggressive and refractory to intensive chemotherapeutic regimens for myeloid and lymphoid malignancies, and the patient died 3 months after the initial presentation. The leukemic cells were of irregular shape and variable size; they had deeply indented or bi-lobed nuclei and relatively fine, azurophilic granules in their cytoplasm. They were positive for acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase in granular staining, but they were negative for myeloperoxidase. The leukemic cells had a unique immunophenotype: it was positive for T-cell antigens (CD1a, CD2, cytoplasmic CD3, CD4), myeloid antigens (CD13 and CD33), NK-cell antigen (CD56), CD19 and CD30. dna analysis revealed no gene rearrangement in the T-cell receptor beta, gamma and delta, or immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. The leukemic cells of our patient are thought to have arisen from the transformation of a putative precursor cell common to both the T- and NK-cell lineage in the bone marrow. The current literature on precursor NK-cell malignancy is reviewed, and its clinicopathological feature is discussed.
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keywords = malignancy
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2/102. Acute trilineage leukemia with monosomy of chromosome 7 following an acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    We describe an 8 year old boy who had received chemotherapy for an acute promyelocytic leukemia and developed a secondary leukemia 27 months after the diagnosis of this first malignancy. Blasts cells were positive for cytoplasmic markers CD22, CD3 and myeloperoxidase. Cell surface T and myeloid-associated markers were also detected. Cytogenetic study disclosed monosomy 7. The patient achieved complete remission, but relapsed 15 months later with identical immunophenotypic and cytogenetic findings. Three-lineage commitment is proved by the expression of specific criteria for myeloid, and lymphoid T and B typing. A multipotent immature progenitor must be the target of leukemogenic agents. The prognosis is obviously ominous.
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3/102. Secondary tumors in bone sarcomas after treatment with chemotherapy.

    New oncologic treatments have improved survival in osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma. However, these treatments may cause secondary malignancies after radiotherapy. This study evaluated the incidence of secondary malignancies after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Between April 1972 and December 1990, 518 osteosarcoma and 299 Ewing's sarcoma patients entered neoadjuvant chemotherapy protocols. Follow-up records of all patients were analyzed and malignant tumors were reported. Nine patients developed another malignancy, including 5 leukemias, 1 astrocytoma, 1 liposarcoma, 1 parotid, and 1 breast carcinoma. Four leukemias were found in patients treated for osteosarcoma with chemotherapy, but not radiotherapy. Only one leukemia developed after Ewing's sarcoma treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The incidence of leukemias is high, while the other tumors can be explained as unrelated cases. incidence densities for leukemia were calculated for both groups of patients. Treated osteosarcoma patients seem to have a predisposition to develop leukemias, but whether this is chemotherapy induced needs to be investigated.
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4/102. Acute leukemia following prolonged cytotoxic agent therapy.

    1. Nine patients in whom acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL) developed following prolonged alkylating agent therapy are described. Five of the patients received no radiotherapy. The conditions treated were: Hodgkin's disease (four patients), primary amyloidosis, primary macroglobulinemia, malignant lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and carcinoma of the tonsil. 2. Prior to the advent of chemotherapy, this complication was not observed in large series of patients with lymphoproliferative disorders and multiple myeloma. However, the medical literature now contains at least 125 other detailed reports of ANLL developing after prolonged cytotoxic agent therapy. 3. multiple myeloma and Hodgkin's disease, both of which commonly have good responses to chemotherapy, predominate as the underlying diseases. However, 35% of the case reports involve patients with other illnesses, including 12 patients who did not have neoplasms. 4. More than half of the patients developing ANLL have received chemotherapy alone without radiotherapy. 5. At least half of the patients developing ANLL experienced long periods of significant cytopenia during therapy, often with documentation of bone marrow dysplasia. 6. The wide variety of drugs associated with this complication suggests that any cytotoxic agent may be leukemogenic. However, alkylating agents overwhelmingly predominate as the class of compounds which are most often associated with terminal ANLL. 7. The vast majority of patients reported in the literature with ANLL complicating underlying malignancies have received cytotoxic drugs for prolonged periods (median 3 1/2 years) and leukemia developed most commonly 3 to 5 years after the diagnosis of the underlying disease. Most of these patients benefited from therapy and survived longer (median 5 years) than historical control of untreated patients. 8. The leukemogenic potential in man of prolonged cytotoxic agents therapy, especially with alkylating agents, seems to be well established. This evidence admonishes against the prolonged use of these drugs in non-fatal disorders. 9. More accurate assessment of risk: benefit ratios awaits the results of prospective controlled studies. The results of these studies could also lead to significant modifications in recommendations for long-term maintenance therapy with cytotoxic agents.
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ranking = 0.34523355695983
keywords = neoplasm
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5/102. splenic rupture in children with hematologic malignancies.

    BACKGROUND: splenic rupture is an uncommon but life-threatening complication of leukemias and lymphomas, and is reported mostly in adults. The authors investigated the frequency with which splenic rupture is diagnosed in pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies and reviewed its clinical profile and outcome. methods: The data base of St. Jude Children's research Hospital was searched for cases coded as splenic laceration or rupture, splenic infarction, or splenectomy in patients diagnosed with lymphoma or leukemia between January 1962 and December 1997. The medical records of patients with histopathologic or radiologic evidence of splenic rupture were reviewed. The time spanned by the study was divided into early (1962-1990) and recent (1991-1997) eras to reflect the availability of modern diagnostic imaging techniques. RESULTS: Seven children experienced splenic rupture. They were between ages 5-17 years. There were four males and three females. Primary diagnoses included acute myeloid leukemia (four patients), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (two patients), and Hodgkin lymphoma (one patient). Five patients were diagnosed in the recent era and two in the early era. Four patients had radiologic or bacteriologic evidence of fungal infection concomitant with the splenic event. Of five deaths, only two were related causally to splenic rupture; these occurred in the early era. All seven acute episodes of splenic rupture were managed conservatively without surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The overall frequency with which splenic rupture was detected in children with hematologic malignancy at the study institution was 0.18%. In the recent era, the frequency of detection was 9-fold higher (0.55%) than that of the early era (0.06%). Improved imaging techniques and increased utilization of imaging studies may account for the increased incidental detection of "preclinical" splenic rupture. adolescent age group, acute myeloid leukemia (especially acute promyelocytic leukemia), a high leukocyte count, thrombocytopenia, and coagulopathy may predispose children with leukemia to pathologic splenic rupture. Fungal infection frequently was associated with splenic rupture and may play a role in its pathogenesis.
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keywords = malignancy
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6/102. Temporary remission of an alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma diagnosed and treated as acute leukemia.

    A 29-year-old man with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was considered to be suffering from acute leukemia. A bone marrow aspirate had revealed extensive infiltration by atypical blast-like cells which were interpreted as acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although there was no confirmation of this diagnosis by immunophenotyping chemotherapy with a protocol suited for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was started prior to histological analysis and resulted in a complete temporary remission after the first cycle. Histological analysis of a bone marrow biopsy revealed an alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, as further confirmed by molecular genetic analysis. Two months after the end of chemotherapy, there was an extensive recurrence and the patient died one year after initial diagnosis with chemotherapy refractory disease. In conclusion, rhabdomyosarcoma should always be included in the differential diagnosis of systemic diseases with extensive bone marrow infiltration by tumor cells which could otherwise be misinterpreted as a haematological malignancy.
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ranking = 246.99033242729
keywords = haematological malignancy, malignancy
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7/102. leukemia and myelodysplasia effect of multiple cytotoxic therapy in essential thrombocythemia.

    Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by increased risk of thrombosis and/or hemorrhages. Cytotoxic drugs are mostly used in patients at high risk for thrombotic complications, while their use is still debated in low risk patients because of the risk of leukemia or secondary neoplasm. We discuss the leukemic risk of available treatment strategies in a large cohort of patients. Over a 12 years period we treated 23 patients with busulfan (BU), 1 with pipobroman (Pi), 6 with 32P, 48 with hydroxyurea (HU) in 62 cases associated with acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) while 77 patients received ASA alone and 33 did not receive any therapy. We observed 2 cases of acute leukemia (AL) and 1 of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). One of these patients had been treated with 32P and Pi these after with and the other two with BU and HU. They represented 23% of all patients treated with more than 1 cytotoxic agent, 16.6% of 32P treated subjects, 4% of those with HU and 6.4% of those with BU. The case of MDS occurred in a 81 years old female and represents 4% of cases of ET over the 70 years of age. No cases of AL or MDS were observed in patients not receiving cytotoxic therapy (with or without ASA). According to our experience the use of more than one cytotoxic agent in ET confirms the increase in the risk of leukemia in these cases. However, none of the patients treated with HU alone, even for more than 10 years (12 cases) developed AL. No treatment or therapy with ASA alone may be the best choice in young patients with ET with a low risk of thrombotic complications.
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ranking = 0.34523355695983
keywords = neoplasm
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8/102. Lymphoid malignancy as a presenting sign of ataxia-telangiectasia.

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is an uncommon genetic disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasias, progressive immunodeficiency, and a predisposition to lymphoid malignancy. The genetic defect in AT predisposes not only to malignancy but also to severe toxicity from anti-neoplastic therapies. It is important to consider the diagnosis of AT in any child with a lymphoid malignancy at a younger than expected age, or who has a pre-existing ataxia, to anticipate unusually severe toxicities from the antineoplastic therapy, to avoid confusing the development of ataxia with toxicity from therapy, and to provide appropriate genetic counseling. We describe two children at a young age with a lymphoid malignancy diagnosed before the diagnosis of AT. One patient had severe toxicity from his chemotherapy, requiring truncation of the planned course of treatment. The other child was able to tolerate his entire planned course of therapy, but ataxia that was initially interpreted as toxicity from chemotherapy rather than as a sign of his AT developed. Lymphoid malignancy may be the presenting sign of AT. Making this diagnosis may influence therapy of the malignancy. The neurologic manifestations of the disease can be misinterpreted as toxicities of the chemotherapy, and diagnosis of AT allows appropriate genetic counseling for the family.
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ranking = 10
keywords = malignancy
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9/102. Successful treatment of disseminated fusarium infection in an infant with leukemia.

    Disseminated fusarium infection in an immunocompromised host is intractable and results in high mortality. We provide the first full case report on successful treatment of a disseminated fusarium infection in an infant. The 6-month-old infant, whose family raised livestock, had infantile leukemia. During the neutropenic period after intensive chemotherapy, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, subcutaneous nodes, and coughing appeared. pneumonia was diagnosed, and fusarium moniliforme was isolated from blood culture. A central venous catheter was removed. granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and amphotericin b (AMPH-B) (total dose, 65 mg/kg) were administered continuously for 8 weeks. The infection was resolved according to improvement of clinical and laboratory findings, and intensive chemotherapy was restarted for the leukemia. cord blood stem cell transplantation from an unrelated donor was performed. The fusarium infection did not recur, but after transplantation, leukemia relapsed. Treatment of neutrophils using G-CSF, AMPH-B, and local treatment induced resolution of the disseminated fusarium infection in this immunocompromised host with malignancy. We suggest caution for patients living in an environment conducive to the development of fusarium infection because of the particular risk of infection.
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keywords = malignancy
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10/102. Chemotherapy for leukaemia following previous pelvic radiotherapy is associated with severe enteritis and haemorrhagic cystitis.

    We describe two patients who developed extensive ulceration, haemorrhage and necrosis of bladder or bowel following treatment with intensive chemotherapy for acute leukaemia. Major surgical intervention was required in both cases. Both patients had previously undergone pelvic radiotherapy for gynaecologic malignancy and had suffered symptoms of chronic radiation-induced cystitis and enteritis. Bowel and bladder histology showed evidence of chronic radiation cystitis or enteritis. We postulate that combined mucosal toxicity secondary to cytotoxic therapy and chronic radiation-induced damage to bowel or bladder mucosa resulted in critical ischaemia, ulceration and necrosis of bowel and bladder. Caution must be exercised in the treatment of patients receiving intensive chemotherapy if there is a history of chronic radiation enteritis or cystitis, and dosage reductions may be justified.
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ranking = 1
keywords = malignancy
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