Cases reported "Leukemia"

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1/7. Human herpesvirus 6 limbic encephalitis after stem cell transplantation.

    central nervous system complications are common in stem cell transplant recipients, but selective involvement of the medial temporal area is unusual. The 5 patients reported here presented after stem cell transplantation with increased hippocampal T2 signal on magnetic resonance imaging and increased hippocampal glucose uptake on [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) associated with short-term memory loss, insomnia, and temporal lobe electrographic seizure activity. The initial scalp electroencephalograms (EEGs) failed to detect seizure activity in these patients, although the memory dysfunction along with the magnetic resonance imaging and FDG-PET findings suggested subcortical seizure activity. However, extended EEG monitoring revealed repetitive temporal lobe electrographic seizure activity. Follow-up MRIs in 2 patients and postmortem findings on 1 patient suggested that hippocampal sclerosis had developed following the clinical syndrome. cerebrospinal fluid studies revealed the presence of human herpesvirus 6, variant B, dna in all of 3 patients who had lumbar punctures. Immunohistochemical staining for the P41 and P101 human herpesvirus 6 protein antigens showed numerous immunoreactive astrocytes and neurons in the hippocampus of 1 of the patients who died from other causes. Because of its subtle clinical presentation, this syndrome may be underrecognized, but can be diagnosed with appropriate magnetic resonance imaging techniques, EEG monitoring, and cerebrospinal fluid viral studies.
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2/7. Proliferative kinetics of central nervous system (CNS) leukemia.

    The proliferative kinetics of the leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were studied in three adults with CNS leukemia after 18 and 8 months while receiving an intensive treatment regimen. One (J.L.) had acute myeloblastic leukemia and developed CNS disease after 5 years' treatment with arabinosylcytosine and 6-thioguanine. All were in marrow remission at the time of study. G.H. had had no therapy for CNS disease, A.K. had had intrathecal methotrexate 2 months previously, and J.L. had recently completed radiotherapy (1900 R) to the head. An Ommaya reservoir was placed in a lateral ventricle and 3H-thymidine was injected into the resrvoir every 12 hours for 10 days; samples of cells were obtained by lumbar puncture periodically for autoradiography. In all patients the flash 3H-thymidine labeling index (LI) of the leukemic cells was less than 2% (determined in vitro) and the mitotic index less than 0.1%. After 10 days of 3H-thymidine injections in vivo, the LIs of the leukemic cells were 55%, 36%, and 21% in G.H., A.K., and J.L., respectively. These findings indicate that leukemic cells may proliferate very slowly in the CNS, and stress the difficulty of eradicating CNS leukemia with chemotherapeutic agents which are only active against proliferating cells.
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3/7. Complications of lumbar puncture in a child treated for leukaemia.

    Lumbar puncture may lead to neurological complications. These include intracranial hypotension, cervical epidural haematomas, and cranial and lumbar subdural haematomas. MRI is the modality of choice to diagnose these complications. This report documents MRI findings of such complications in a child treated for leukaemia.
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4/7. Use of recombinant factor viia prior to lumbar puncture in pediatric patients with acute leukemia.

    The persistence of abnormal coagulation test results after standard treatment with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) poses significant problems in children with acute leukemia requiring a diagnostic lumbar puncture and intrathecal chemotherapy. We report the prophylactic use of a single dose of 90 microg/kg recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in three children and the rapid correction of abnormal coagulation test results previously not corrected by FFP. Administration of rFVIIa was useful in avoiding a delay of diagnostic lumbar punctures and intrathecal chemotherapy. Hemorrhagic complications and adverse effects of rFVIIa were not observed. Prospective evaluation of this indication and dose appears warranted. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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5/7. Successful treatment of meningeal leukemia using systemic high-dose cytosine arabinoside.

    Conventional therapy for leukemic meningitis includes cranial irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy administered by repeated lumbar punctures or direct intraventricular instillation via an Ommaya reservoir. Several clinical reports have indicated that high doses of cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) are effective in the treatment of acute leukemia refractory to standard induction therapy. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that high doses of ara-C given intravenously obtain sustained therapeutic drug concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid, suggesting that this approach may be useful in the treatment of systemic disease associated with meningeal involvement. Five consecutive patients with overt meningeal leukemia were treated using only systemic chemotherapy containing high-dose ara-C. In all patients there was prompt resolution of neurologic symptoms and signs accompanied by cytologic clearing of leukemic cells from the cerebrospinal fluid.
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6/7. Making the system work. Training pediatric oncology patients to cope and their parents to coach them during BMA/LP procedures.

    Three 4- to 7-year-old pediatric oncology patients were taught to engage in distraction prior to painful bone marrow aspirations and lumbar puncture procedures and to use party blowers as a breathing technique during the painful procedures. parents were taught to coach their children to use these coping behaviors. Using a multiple baseline across subjects design, results indicated that all of the parents increased their rate of coaching. Each child responded with increased coping and decreased observable distress after the first treatment session. One child returned to baseline levels of coping and distress on the next two sessions. The other two children maintained their high rates of coping and low rates of observable distress during the remaining treatment and during the maintenance sessions. parents' coaching of their children to use coping behaviors also remained high during maintenance sessions.
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7/7. Primary central nervous system leukemia with a novel chromosomal translocation.

    A case of central nervous system (CNS) leukemia with normal bone marrow, associated with a novel chromosomal abnormality, is described. A 58 year-old woman complained of hearing disturbance, severe headache and vomiting, and showed signs of meningeal irritation, as well as papilledema and bilateral dysacusis. Immature atypical cells were found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with elevated pressure, pleocytosis, increased protein and decreased glucose levels. She was diagnosed as having neoplastic meningitis. In spite of intensive investigations, including bone marrow puncture, malignancies were not found in organs other than intra-cranial site. The symptoms and CSF findings were temporarily improved with chemotherapy and irradiation, but she relapsed into neoplastic meningitis. The anaplastic cells in CSF were positive with CD45 by immunocytochemistry, and were positive by peroxidase staining. Thus, the anaplastic cells were considered to be myelocytic leukemic cells. Chromosomal analysis showed that these leukemic cells had a novel chromosomal abnormality: 46XX, 4q , 10q-, 16q-. There has been no report of leukemic meningitis without bone marrow abnormalities. It is possible that this peculiar abnormal chromosome is related to the primary infiltration of the central nervous system. With this novel chromosomal abnormality, this case is important for considering the mechanism of primary leukemic meningitis.
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