Cases reported "Leukocytosis"

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1/3. A bad eye and a sore lip.

    A 48-year-old woman developed painful visual loss in the left eye, meningismus, and painful oral ulcers. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with gadolinium demonstrated enhancement of the left optic nerve. Lumbar puncture showed a lymphocytic pleocytosis, and a biopsy specimen of one of the oral ulcerations was consistent with Behcet's disease. epidemiologic factors and diagnostic criteria for Behcet's disease are discussed.
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2/3. Cutaneous promyelocytic sarcoma at sites of vascular access and marrow aspiration. A characteristic localization of chloromas in acute promyelocytic leukemia?

    Extramedullary disease (EMD) is a rare clinical event in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Although the skin is involved in half of the reported EMD cases, the occurrence of cutaneous promyelocytic sarcoma (PS) has been described very rarely. We report here three cases of PS which have the peculiarity of appearing at sites of punctures for arterial and venous blood and marrow samples (sternal manubrium, antecubital fossa, wrist over the radial artery pulse, catheter insertion scar). At presentation, all patients had hyperleukocytosis and a morphologic diagnosis of microgranular acute promyelocytic leukemia variant confirmed at the genetic level by demonstration of the specific chromosomal translocation t(15;17). A BCR3 type PML/RARa transcript was documented in the two patients for whom diagnostic RT-PCR was available. patients had morphologic bone marrow remission at the time the PS appeared. A predilection for the development of cutaneous PS at sites of previous vascular damage has been noted, but the pathogenesis remains largely unknown. A potential role for all-trans retinoic acid has been advocated, although one of the three patients in our series had received no ATRA. A review of the literature revealed six similar cases and hyperleukocytosis at diagnosis was a consistent finding in all of them. A careful physical examination of these particular sites in the follow-up of patients at risk, as well as cutaneous biopsy and laboratory examination of suspected lesions are strongly recommended.
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3/3. Neurosarcoidosis--a diagnostic pitfall with consequences.

    Neurosarcoidosis is often a diagnostic dilemma, especially in the absence of other organ involvement. We report a 64-year-old patient who had suffered from paraplegia due to an intramedullar process since 1995. The presumptive diagnosis based on computed tomography was spinal cord infarction. Six years later, he complained about increasing paresthesia. magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord showed nodular meningeal enhancement. Computed tomography of the thorax revealed mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. bronchoscopy under generalized anesthesia was performed. The differential cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed 39% lymphocytes and a CD4( )/CD8( ) ratio of 17.7. Histological examination of biopsy specimens from the hilar lymph nodes revealed non-necrotizing granulomas with epitheloid cells and Langerhans-type giant cells, consistent with the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. As a result of these findings, lumbar puncture was undertaken and a raised protein concentration and pleocytosis were found in the cerebrospinal fluid. The number of lymphocytes (9,250 lymphocytes/l) and a CD4( )/CD8( ) ratio of 10.78 led to the diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis. paralysis might have been prevented if the correct diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis had been established earlier in this patient.
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