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1/41. Protracted course of Krabbe disease in an adult patient bearing a novel mutation.

    BACKGROUND: Krabbe disease, or globoid cell leukodystrophy, is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of galactocerebrosidase (GALC) activity. Although most cases are diagnosed in infancy and show a fatal outcome in childhood, adult patients have been identified, showing progressive spastic hemiparesis to tetraparesis, followed by optic atrophy, dementia, and neuropathy. The disease can be diagnosed by detecting the deficiency of GALC activity (less than 5% of normal) in any available tissue sample. The cloning of the human GALC gene allowed the molecular characterization of newly diagnosed patients. More than 75 disease-causing mutations and polymorphisms in this gene have been identified. OBJECTIVE: To describe a 28-year-old woman with Krabbe disease, correlating clinical and biochemical abnormalities to a novel mutation on the GALC gene. methods: Clinical investigation was enriched by neurophysiological and neuroimaging data. The activity of GALC was assayed in white blood cells using radiolabeled natural substrate. Genomic dna was isolated from peripheral blood, and the GALC gene was sequenced. The mutated gene was expressed and GALC activity was measured in transfected COS-1 cells. RESULTS: The patient had progressive and bilateral amaurosis starting at 8 years of age. Although she was experiencing weakness in all her extremities, her intellect remained intact. She was found to be homozygous for a previously unreported missense mutation (T1886G), which leads to low, but not totally deficient, GALC activity. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of this mutation in COS-1 cells using the pcDNA3 expression vector (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, Calif) resulted in low, although not null, GALC activity, which can explain the protracted clinical course in this patient. patients carrying the mutation described herein might be potential candidates for therapeutic trials, such as bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = peripheral, neuropathy
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2/41. optic nerve enlargement in Krabbe's disease.

    We report imaging and gross pathologic findings from two cases of Krabbe disease in which there was marked enlargement of the intracranial optic nerves. Numerous globoid cells were observed in the optic nerves at autopsy in one case. Krabbe disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of children with enlargement of the optic nerves.
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ranking = 0.63389510665298
keywords = nerve
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3/41. Clinical and cerebral FDG PET scan in a patient with Krabbe's disease.

    A 2-year, 6-month-old Saudi male with infantile Krabbe's disease was studied with fluorine-18-labeled-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scan. The patient presented with a gradual loss of developmental milestones, irritability, and crying. At the advanced stage of the disease, he developed tonic-clonic seizures and became a microcephalic, extremely irritable, blind, spastic quadriplegic child, with no deep tendon reflexes. Laboratory studies revealed normal blood chemistry, muscle enzymes, very long chain fatty acids, and acylcarnitines. No abnormal urinary organic acids were detected. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was increased. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed mild brain atrophy and white matter disease mainly in the centrum semiovale. electroretinography was normal; however, electroencephalography and visual-evoked potentials were abnormal. Peripheral nerve conduction studies documented a demyelinating neuropathic process. The FDG PET study of the brain demonstrated a marked decrease in the metabolism of the left cerebral cortex and no uptake in the caudate heads. Normal glucose uptake was observed in the thalami, lentiform nuclei, and cerebellum. The patient did not present for subsequent clinic visits and is presumed dead.
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ranking = 0.090556443807568
keywords = nerve
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4/41. lactic acid elevation in extramitochondrial childhood neurodegenerative diseases.

    We report three children, each of whom seemed to have a primary mitochondrial disorder at presentation but was eventually diagnosed with an extramitochondrial inherited metabolic disease. The first patient presented at 6 months with developmental delay. magnetic resonance imaging showed an abnormal signal in the white matter, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed elevated lactate peaks. A muscle biopsy showed complex IV deficiency, but leukocyte measurement of galactosylceramide beta-galactosidase activity was markedly diminished, consistent with Krabbe's disease. The second patient presented at birth with seizures and later had developmental delays. There was brain atrophy on neuroimaging. serum and cerebrospinal fluid lactate levels were elevated. She had persistently elevated urine thiosulfate, which was diagnostic for molybdenum cofactor deficiency. The third child presented at 2 months with seizures and hypotonia. magnetic resonance imaging showed an abnormal signal in the basal ganglia and surrounding white matter, whereas magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed elevated lactate peaks. A brain biopsy was diagnostic for Alexander's disease. These cases and others in the literature suggest that lactic acid elevation in the central nervous system can be found in a number of extramitochondrial neurologic diseases. Such diseases would constitute a third category of lactic acidosis.
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ranking = 0.073089001590251
keywords = nervous system
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5/41. Intracranial and spinal MR imaging findings associated with Krabbe's disease: case report.

    Krabbe's disease is an autosomal recessive leukodystrophy with well-documented intracranial findings on both CT scans and MR images. We herein present what is thought to be the second case of Krabbe's disease with spinal involvement shown on MR images as abnormal contrast enhancement of the lumbosacral nerve roots. The typical intracranial findings of T2 hyperintensity without contrast enhancement were present within the periventricular white matter, but there was no area of abnormal signal intensity or enhancement within the substance of the spinal cord. We briefly review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and imaging findings of Krabbe's disease. Spinal abnormalities may precede the onset of brain abnormalities, and MR imaging may be a useful diagnostic tool in cases of Krabbe's disease and other leukodystrophies.
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ranking = 0.090556443807568
keywords = nerve
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6/41. Familial adult onset of Krabbe's disease resembling hereditary spastic paraplegia with normal neuroimaging.

    Krabbe's disease (globoid cell leucodystrophy) is a disorder involving the white matter of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Mutations in the gene for the lysosomal enzyme galactocerebrosidase (GALC) result in low enzymatic activity and decreased ability to degrade galactolipids found in myelin. The disease is classically of infantile onset, but adult onset cases have been reported. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain shows characteristic abnormalities. A unique family with Krabbe's disease is described, with proven GALC deficiency but normal MRI. A neurological phenotype is present in heterozygotes and the family shows the extent of homozygotic phenotypic diversity that can be seen in this disorder.
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ranking = 0.73240918633042
keywords = peripheral, nervous system
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7/41. Peripheral neuropathy with hypomyelinating features in adult-onset Krabbe's disease.

    We describe three brothers suffering from Krabbe's disease with onset in the fifth decade. The proband showed a complete deficiency of leukocyte enzyme galactocerebrosidase and was found to be heterozygous for two previously described mutations: G > A809 and 502T/del consisting of a 30 kb deletion. In all three brothers the neurological examination showed features of asymmetrical peripheral neuropathy associated with pyramidal signs and the electrophysiological examination showed a generalized slowing of nerve conduction velocities. Two patients died at 59 and 61 years of age due to respiratory failure. Both the proband and his brother underwent a sural nerve biopsy. In the former the most striking finding was the presence of uniformly thin myelin sheaths without evidence of demyelination; a complete absence of fibers was found in the latter. Our findings confirm that peripheral neuropathy may be the presenting feature of late-onset Krabbe's disease. Hypomyelination rather than demyelination may represent the distinguishing pathological finding of this condition.
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ranking = 19.83312567253
keywords = peripheral neuropathy, peripheral, neuropathy, nerve
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8/41. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for infantile globoid-cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe's disease).

    A 4-month-old-girl affected by early expression of Krabbe's disease was treated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The stem cell donor was her heterozygous HLA-identical mother. The central nervous system (CNS) involvement at diagnosis was evident, but minimal. After BMT the child presented a severe hypotonia and an acute tetraventricular hydrocephalus; she died 180 days after the BMT with progressive severe neurologic deterioration. Leukocyte galactocerebrosidase (GALC) activity was present at donor levels 20 days after BMT. Full donor chimerism was evident 18 days after BMT. This report confirms that in early onset "Krabbe's syndrome" if the diagnosis is delayed after the birth, the progression of the neurologic deterioration is not reversed by BMT. It is to be demonstrated if a very early hemopoietic stem cell transplantation during the first weeks of life, could be appropriate and efficacious.
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ranking = 0.073089001590251
keywords = nervous system
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9/41. Early peripheral nervous system manifestations of infantile Krabbe disease.

    Early infantile Krabbe disease is relatively frequent in the Muslim-Arab population in israel. It can be easily diagnosed when it presents with the classic clinical picture characterized by central nervous system manifestations of spasticity, irritability, motor regression and seizures associated with a positive family history. We studied eight children diagnosed with Krabbe disease. In two of these children (25%), peripheral neuropathy was the single initial symptom and the only neurologic finding noted for a period of months. In these patients, diagnosis of Krabbe's disease was delayed and established only 9-11 months after the initial symptoms. In two other children with "classical picture" Krabbe disease, areflexia was noted on admission. The occurrence of peripheral neuropathy as an initial symptom in early infantile Krabbe disease may be underestimated. Krabbe disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of early infantile peripheral neuropathy. early diagnosis of affected children might be important for genetic counseling for families at risk.
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ranking = 30.436666032726
keywords = peripheral neuropathy, peripheral, neuropathy, nervous system
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10/41. Serial magnetic resonance imaging studies in a case of late onset globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    The late onset type of globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD) is a rare disorder and only three magnetic resonance imaging (MR) studies have been reported for this disease. We report a sporadic case of late onset GLD. The illness started at the age of 3 years and 8 months with spastic gait. He became bedridden at the age of 4 years and 7 months. The diagnosis was made by deficient activity of galactosylceramidase in lymphocytes, and the biochemical and morphological examinations of the biopsied sural nerve were also conducted. Computed tomography (CT) and MR study revealed that the degenerative change of the white matter was initially recognized in the occipital and parietal lobes and then extended forward. literature of the CT or MR findings of GLD is also reviewed.
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ranking = 0.090556443807568
keywords = nerve
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