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1/28. Acute hemorrhagic encephalitis (Hurst disease) associated with neuroaxonal dystrophy.

    Two cases that fulfil the clinical and neuropathological criteria of acute hemorrhagic encephalitis are described. Histological examination revealed additionally focal changes in the white matter characteristic for neuroaxonal dystrophy. The differences in the clinical course and morphological picture observed in both cases are discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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2/28. Electron microscopic and immunohistochemical verification of diagnosis in two archival cases recognized as encephalitis necroticans acuta (ENA) on routine examinations.

    Two archival cases diagnosed 20 years ago on routine neuropathological methods as encephalitis Necroticans Acuta (ENA) were investigated in EM and by immunohistochemical methods. The previous diagnosis was confirmed only in one case because herpes simplex virus was found. In the second case the intracellular inclusions visible in ME corresponded to measles virus thus previous diagnosis was changed to SSPE.
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ranking = 0.8
keywords = encephalitis
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3/28. Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis: report of three cases and review of the literature.

    attention is directed to the diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis and the possibility of its clinical recognition is discussed. Three case histories, two diagnosed at autopsy and one clinically, are presented. The latter was treated with very generous doses of steroids and recovered spectacularly. On omission of steroids, a mild, temporary clinical recurrence occurred. Clinical, clinico-pathologic, and pathologic aspects of the disease are discussed, and etiologic factors mentioned. Some thoughts on the relationship of this disease to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis are mentioned. Differential diagnosis is considered and the use of biopsy for confirmation of diagnosis especially from herpes encephalitis considered. A plea is made for the trial of treatment with large doses of steroids.
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ranking = 1.2007683984701
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
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4/28. Acute haemorrhagic leucoencephalitis complicating sepsis.

    A case of acute haemorrhagic leucoencephalitis presenting as fatal septic encephalopathy is reported. The clinical features of this condition are reviewed and the potential for earlier diagnosis is considered.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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5/28. Craniectomy in severe, life-threatening encephalitis: a report on outcome and long-term prognosis of four cases.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the feasibility of craniectomy with duraplasty in four patients with life-threatening encephalitis and, in particular, their long-term outcome. DESIGN: Report of four cases, analysis of the acute clinical course and neurological long-term sequelae. RESULTS: Generous craniectomy with duraplasty was performed in four patients with life-threatening encephalitis leading to decortication and decerebration. This treatment approach reduced intracranial pressure. The long-term sequelae (1.5-8 years after craniectomy) confirmed its appropriateness, having led to full neurological (cerebral) function, resocialization, and reintegration into their professional life in all four patients. CONCLUSION: Craniectomy with dural augmentation is a treatment approach in cases of severe space-occupying encephalitis, not only saving the patient's life but also leading to favorable long-term outcome.
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ranking = 1.4
keywords = encephalitis
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6/28. Two episodes of leukoencephalitis associated with recombinant hepatitis b vaccination in a single patient.

    Cases of central nervous system demyelination have been reported after recombinant hepatitis b vaccination, but no causal link has been clearly demonstrated. We present the first case report involving the occurrence of 2 episodes of leukoencephalitis in a previously healthy patient after vaccination and rechallenge with hepatitis b vaccine.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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7/28. Post-infectious central and peripheral nervous system diseases complicating mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Report of three cases and review of the literature.

    Three patients with a central and peripheral nervous system disease complicating a mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pn.) infection are presented. Patient 1 suffered from bilateral optic neuritis as well as acute guillain-barre syndrome recovering after plasmapheresis. The two other patients suffered from severe haemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (Hurst) which only could be contained by aggressive decompressive craniectomy with duraplasty. All three illnesses were clearly shown to be associated with M. pn. infection.Our three patients represent the full scale of central nervous (CNS) (cerebral and myelitic) as well as peripheral nervous system (PNS) (GBS, optic neuritis) manifestation of a disease caused by the same pathogenetic - post-infectious - mechanism; pathogenic CNS and PNS epitopes might be shared in post-infectious neurological disease following M. pn. infection.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = encephalitis
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8/28. Pediatric acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis: report of a surviving patient and review.

    Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHLE) is a rare, fulminant CNS demyelinating condition usually diagnosed at autopsy. We report the clinical, laboratory, radiographic, and pathologic features of the first nonfatal case of pediatric AHLE confirmed by brain biopsy. Pathologic diagnosis of this condition may be critical to exclude more-common processes and to expedite the decision to administer high-dose corticosteroid therapy, which is potentially lifesaving.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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9/28. Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis in male sibs.

    male siblings developed acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHL) at age five months and eight months, respectively. This rare condition has not been reported in individuals less than two years of age or with a recurrence in the family. The diagnosis was based on neuropathologic features after ruling out potentially mimicking conditions. genetic counseling of early onset AHL should include the possibility of recurrence in siblings.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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10/28. Posterior leukoencephalopathy in a girl with acute haemorrhagic leukoencephalitis.

    In children, posterior leukoencephalopathy is frequently associated with hypertensive encephalopathy, anticancer chemotherapy, treatment with immunosuppressive drugs in patients with organ transplantation, transfusion or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Posterior leukoencephalopathy in these children appears as a complicating illness and resolves once precipitating factor (e.g. cancer chemotherapy) is removed. Here we are reporting a fatal case of acute haemorrhatic leukoencephalitis in a 13 year old girl, imaging abnormalities are also suggestive of posterior leukoencephalopathy. Posterior leukoencephalopathy in our patient possibly, is a part of post-infectious haemorrhagic leukoencephalitis, rather than because of ischaemia or cerebral oedema secondary either to abrupt increase in blood pressure or following administration of immunosuppressive drugs.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = encephalitis
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