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1/371. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: unusual MRI findings and prolonged survival in a pregnant woman.

    We report a biopsy-proven case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in a pregnant woman without obvious underlying immune disorder. MRI showed lesion enhancement and deep gray matter involvement, which are uncommon imaging patterns in PML. The clinical course in this case is also rather atypical, as the patient is alive 16 months after disease onset. The combination of these unusual characteristics in PML is unknown and indicates that the criteria for this disease may need to be redefined. ( info)

2/371. Immunohistochemical detection of jc virus in nontumorous renal tissue of a patient with renal cancer but without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

    We performed immunohistochemical staining on the nontumorous renal tissue of 45 patients with renal cancer but without progressive multifocal encephalopathy using JCV-specific antibody. For one patient we found positive staining of the nuclei of the renal collecting ducts. Immunoelectron microscopic examination of the positive cell nuclei revealed electron-dense polyomavirus-like particles. ( info)

3/371. Virus-cell interaction in oligodendroglia, astroglia and phagocyte in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. An electron microscopic study.

    A 46-year-old female, with an 11 year history of malignant lymphoreticular disease, developed a neurological illness clinically manifested by a focal mass lesion in the left frontal lobe. In biopsied tissue, immunofluorescence study revealed the presence of JC antigen in the glial cells. Histologically, the lesion was characteristic of PML consisting of PML consisting of focal necrosis in the subcortical white matter, numerous fat laden macrophages and marked hypertrophy of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. By electron microscopy, hypertrophic astrocytes contained intranuclear viral particles consistent with papova virions and aggregates of intracytoplasmic viral particles consisting of a single to several virions tightly surrounded by a single membrane. The membrane appeared to have been derived from that of the cellular vesicles. Fusion of the virus-associated membrane to the astroglial plasmalemma occurred when the virions appeared to shift towards extracellular space. The virioncontaining astrocytes showed cytoplasmic "fibrillar hypertrophy" similar to the characteristic gigantic astroglias of PML. This fact would provide an additional evidence that these gigantic cells, although lacking identifiable viral structures, were the result of anaplastic transformation by jc virus. Many virus-bearing astroglias were noted to be in the early stage of cellular necrosis, of "edematous degeneration". This further indicates that the jc virus is capable of inducing both lytic and abortive astroglial infections. Many oligodendroglias were hypertrophic due to the presence of intranuclear viral particles and markedly increased numbers of microtubules and free ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Membrane-bound intracytoplasmic viral particles were also noted in the oligodendroglias. Some fat laden macrophages contained large intracytoplasmic viral bodies, presumably originating from phagocytized virus-bearing cells. ( info)

4/371. Cerebral lymphomatoid granulomatosis. A report of two cases, with disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy in one.

    Neuropathologic findings in 2 cases of cerebral lymphomatoid granulomatosis with sequelae are presented. A 30-year old male with macular rash and pulmonary lymphomatoid granulomatosis responded to prednisone terapy but developed acute intracranial hypertension with coma. A necrotizing hemorrhagic lesion was evident in the left putamen surrounded by diffuse and perivascular atypical lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. An 18-year old girl developed pulmonary lymphomatoid granulomatosis, diplopia, slurred speech and right hemiparesis. brain scan, angiography and EEG suggested a left fronto-parietal mass assumed to represent lymphomatoid granulomatosis. She responded well to cerebral irradiation, intrathecal methotrexate and cytoxan but relapsed with seizures and increasing respiratory insufficiency. At autopsy, stigmata of cerebral lymphomatoid granulomatosis were absent but a parenchymatous degeneration consistent with disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy following antileukemic therapy in children, was found. ( info)

5/371. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and cerebral toxoplasmosis in an adult patient, with no symptoms of underlying immunosuppressing illness.

    We present a case of the coincidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and central nervous system (CNS) toxoplasmosis in an adult patient, without a detectable cause of cell-mediated immunity impairment. The proper diagnosis was made postmortem on the basis of histological changes typical of both pathological processes. PML was characterized by the presence of subcortical focal demyelination, containing enlarged, densely basophilic oligodendrocyte nuclei, often with intranuclear inclusion, and bizarre astrocytes, mimicking neoplastic cells. PML was confirmed by detecting numerous papova virus particles in oligo- and astroglial nuclei by thin-section electron microscopy. Cerebral toxoplasmosis was characterized by the presence of multiple well-circumscribed necrotizing abscesses. Numerous toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) cysts and free, non-encysted protozoan parasites were found among the inflammatory infiltrates. The diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was further confirmed by immunocytochemistry. In order to detect putative immunosuppressive background underlying both pathological processes, hiv infection was taken into consideration, however, no histopathological changes indicative of AIDS either in the CNS or in the peripheral organs were eventually found. Moreover no hiv provirus genome was identified in the formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded brain tissue by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Current view on the selected aspects of the pathogenesis of both disorders were discussed. ( info)

6/371. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after autologous bone marrow transplantation and alpha-interferon immunotherapy.

    A patient with a stage IV mantle cell lymphoma (according to the REAL classification) was treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. One year later while on alpha-interferon immunotherapy she suffered from progressive loss of short-term memory and reported difficulties in recognizing objects. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a vast ring-enhancing lesion of the left postcentral parietal area. Serial stereotactic biopsies disclosed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy without JC-virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. Therapy with subcutaneous interleukin-2 (IL-2) every other day and intrathecal cytarabine once a week was started. After 4 weeks the patient refused further treatment. Nevertheless her condition improved over the next 8 months and MRI scans showed a marked improvement in the lesions. ( info)

7/371. Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy with peripheral demyelinating neuropathy after autologous bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloblastic leukemia (FAB5).

    Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy is an opportunistic jc virus-related pathology occurring in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of severe cellular immunodeficiency in a patient who underwent autologous bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloblastic leukemia, and who subsequently developed progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy, an unusual pathology in this context. Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy was preceded by a peripheral demyelinating neuropathy. We discuss the possible link between these two neuropathies, the possible aggravation or activation from CMV infection, as well as the possible contribution of bone marrow purging in the resultant cellular immunodeficiency. ( info)

8/371. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) manifesting Gerstmann's syndrome.

    We reported a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) via multiple blood transfusions, who manifested progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) about 18 months after the development of AIDS. PML initiated with right hemiparesis, dysphasia, and Gerstmann's syndrome and resulted in death within 2 months after the onset. neuroimaging examinations revealed white matter lesions mainly in the left posterior parietal lobe. The cortical gray matter also showed abnormal signal intensity. Peripheral CD4 lymphocyte count was 81/microl. Routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations were negative. CSF antibodies against herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus as well as serum antibody against toxoplasma gondii were negative. Though autopsy or biopsy of the brain was not performed, jc virus genomes were detected in the CSF sample by a polymerase chain reaction, and their sequencing showed unique alterations of the regulatory regions, characteristic to PML-type jc virus. ( info)

9/371. Rapidly progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with substantial cell-mediated inflammatory response and with cognitive decline of non-Alzheimer type in a 75-year-old female patient.

    autopsy findings of rapidly progressive and widespread multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in a 75-year-old woman with no known predisposing disease are demonstrated. Originally she was given a clinical working diagnosis of syndrome of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The neuropathological investigation revealed widespread white and gray matter changes consistent with PML, and the jc virus was verified by EM, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In contrast to the few chronic inflammatory cells generally seen in PML in this case there was a substantial cell-mediated inflammatory response reflected in numerous T-helper and T-killer cells. The uncommon, widespread distribution of lesions and substantial cell-mediated response reported might indicate that the rearrangement of viral genome, previously suggested of importance for viral growth in the central nervous system (CNS), is also important for viral spread within the CNS, infectivity of glial cells and for the activation of cell-mediated immunity. ( info)

10/371. White matter dementia in cadasil.

    Cerebral white matter disorders may be associated with profound neurobehavioral dysfunction. We report a 62-year-old man who had a slowly progressive 25-year history of personality change, psychosis, mood disorder, and dementia. neurologic examination disclosed abulia, impaired memory retrieval, and preserved language, with only minimal motor impairment. Neuropsychological testing found a sustained attention deficit, cognitive slowing, impaired learning with intact recognition, and perseveration. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed extensive leukoencephalopathy. Right frontal brain biopsy showed ill-defined white matter pallor with hyaline narrowing of white matter arterioles. Granular osmiophilic material adjacent to vascular smooth muscle cells on electron microscopy of a skin biopsy, and an arginine for cysteine replacement at position 169 in the 4 EGF motif of the notch 3 region on chromosome 19q12 established the diagnosis of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (cadasil). This case illustrates that cadasil can manifest as an isolated neurobehavioral disorder over an extended time period. The dementia associated with cadasil closely resembles that which may occur with other white matter disorders, and represents an example of white matter dementia. ( info)
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